UW School of Dentistry

Fritzie Arce-McShane


Dr. Arce-McShane is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Oral Health Sciences. She received her Bachelor of Science in Physical Therapy from the University of the Philippines, Master of Arts in Motor Learning from Columbia University in New York, and PhD in Neuroscience from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel. She did her postdoctoral work at the University of Chicago and was a Research Assistant Professor prior to joining the School of Dentistry in November 2021.

Research Interests

Dr. Arce-McShane is a neuroscientist and her research focuses on the principles of cortical and biomechanical control of oral sensorimotor behavior (such as feeding, breathing and speech), and how these are affected by learning, aging, and disease. Her previous background as a physical therapist with strong concentrations in movement science, neurological and cognitive rehabilitation has given her a keen awareness of patients’ problems and needs. Her basic science research draws from her clinical experience and is aimed  towards innovative research that directly impacts the evaluation and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, sensorimotor disorders, restoration of sensory feedback in brain-machine interfaces, and age-related dementias.

Her lab uses a multidisciplinary approach to understand the interplay between sensation and movement using converging evidence from psychophysics, biomechanics, neurophysiology, and computational modeling. Her methods include recording neural activity from chronically-implanted microelectrode arrays in multiple regions of the cerebral cortex simultaneous with recording the movements of the tongue and the mandible using high-resolution biplanar radiography and applying computational models to understand the principles of sensorimotor control.

Research Lab website

Selected Publications

  1. Arce-McShane FI (2021) The association between age-related changes in oral neuromechanics and Alzheimer’s disease. Adv Geriatr Med Res 2021;3(2):e210011. https://doi.org/10.20900/agmr20210011
  2. Laurence-Chasen J, Manafzadeh AR, Hatsopoulos NG, Ross CF, Arce-McShane FI (2020) Integrating XMALab and DeepLabCut for high-throughput XROMM. Journal of Experimental Biology 2020 223: jeb226720 doi: 10.1242/jeb.226720
  3. Arce-McShane FI, Sessle BJ, Ram Y, Takahashi K, Balcer C, Ross CF, Hatsopoulos NG (2020) Multiple regions of primate orofacial sensorimotor cortex encode bite force and gape. bioRxiv doi:https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.16.252817
  4. Arce-McShane FI, Sessle BJ, Ross CF, Hatsopoulos NG (2018) Primary sensorimotor cortex exhibits complex dependencies of spike-field coherence on neuronal firing rates, field power, and behavior. Journal of Neurophysiology 120 (1):226-238
  5. Arce-McShane FI, Takahashi K, Ross CF, Sessle BJ, Hatsopoulos NG (2016) Primary motor and sensory cortical areas communicate via spatiotemporally coordinated networks at multiple frequencies. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences 113(18):5083-5088
  6. Arce-McShane F, Hatsopoulos NG, Lee JC, Ross CF, Sessle BJ (2014) Modulation dynamics in the orofacial sensorimotor cortex during motor skill acquisition. Journal of Neuroscience 34(17):5985-5997
  7. Arce F, Ross CF, Lee JC, Sessle BJ, Hatsopoulos NG (2013) Directional information from neuronal ensembles in the primate orofacial sensorimotor cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 110(6):1357-1369

Recent Conference Poster Presentations

  1. Sheridan L, Laurence-Chasen JD, Arce-McShane FI (2021). Sensory loss affects multi-region neural network dynamics in primate sensorimotor cortex. 2021 Society for Neuroscience Conference (accepted)
  2. Luckas J, Laurence-Chasen JD, Fereira III H, Arce-McShane FI (2021). Novel biomarkers in healthy aging: Tongue and jaw kinematics as a potential way to further explore Alzheimer’s-induced biological changes. 2021 Alzheimer’s Association International Conference
  3. Tang D, Simonoff A, Laurence-Chasen JD, Arce-McShane FI (2021) Decoding lingual-palatal contacts from population responses in primate orofacial sensorimotor cortex. Computational and Systems Neuroscience (Cosyne) 2021
  4. Tang D, Simonoff A, Laurence-Chasen JD, Sessle B, Ross C, Hatsopoulos NG, Arce-McShane FI (2021) Decoding lingual-palatal contacts from population responses in primate orofacial sensorimotor cortex. Society for Neuroscience Global Connectome
  5. Laurence-Chasen JD, Ross CF, Hatsopoulos NG, Arce-McShane F (2021) Decoding tongue position and shape from population responses in primate orofacial sensorimotor cortex. Society for Neuroscience Global Connectome
  6. Laurence-Chasen JD, Manafzadeh AR, Hatsopoulos NG, Ross CF, Arce-McShane F (2021) XROMM Tools for DeepLabCut: Bringing deep learning to XROMM marker tracking. Virtual Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology

Jonathan An


Dr. An received his Bachelor of Science in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology from the University of Washington. He completed a dual D.D.S (2015) and Ph.D (2019) from the University of Washington School of Dentistry. He is a UW Magnuson Scholar, ARCS Foundation Fellow, IADR/AADR Hatton Competition winner, and won the inaugural IADR Heraeus Award and ADA/Dentsply Sirona Research Award for Dual Degree Candidates.

Academic and Clinical Activities

Dr. An is currently an Assistant Professor of Oral Health Sciences and Faculty in the Healthy Aging and Longevity Institute. He also serves as the Assistant Graduate Program Director of Oral Health Sciences. Dr. An currently directs courses in the departments of Oral Health Sciences and the Department of Lab Medicine and Pathology.

Research Interests

Dr. An’s research interests lie at the intersection of Geroscience (aging biology) and Oral Biology. His primary research focuses on understand the basic biological mechanisms of aging in the context of oral health and disease.  His laboratory also evaluates and targets specific hallmarks of aging in the oral cavity to one day translate these discoveries to help extend the oral healthspan in humans.

Recent Publications

  1. Buranaphatthana, W.; Yavirach, A.;  Leaf, E. M.;  Scatena, M.;  Zhang, H.;  An, J. Y.; Giachelli, C. M., Engineered osteoclasts resorb necrotic alveolar bone in anti-RANKL antibody-treated mice. Bone 2021, 153, 116144.
  2. An JY, Kerns KA, Ouellette A, Robinson L, Morris HD, Kaczorowski C, Park SI, Mekvanich T, Kang A, McLean JS, Cox TC, Kaeberlein M. Rapamycin rejuvenates oral health in aging mice. Elife. 2020 Apr 28;9. PMID: 32342860; PMCID: PMC7220376.
  3. An JY, Darveau R, Kaeberlein M. Oral health in geroscience: animal models and the aging oral cavity. Geroscience. 2018 Feb;40(1):1-10. PMID: 29282653; PMCID: PMC5832657.
  4. An JY, Quarles EK, Mekvanich S, Kang A, Liu A, Santos D, Miller RA, Rabinovitch PS, Cox TC, Kaeberlein M. Rapamycin treatment attenuates age-associated periodontitis in mice. Geroscience. 2017 Aug;39(4):457-463. PMID: 28889220; PMCID: PMC5636779.
  5. Ito TK, Lu C, Khan J, Nguyen Q, Huang HZ, Kim D, Phillips J, Tan J, Lee Y, Nguyen T, Khessib S, Lim N, Mekvanich S, Oh J, Pineda VV, Wang W, Bitto A, An JY, Morton JF, Setou M, Ladiges WC, Kaeberlein M. Hepatic S6K1 Partially Regulates Lifespan of Mice with Mitochondrial Complex I Deficiency. Front Genet. 2017;8:113 PMID: 28919908; PMCID: PMC5585733.
  6. Chung WO, Wataha JC, Hobbs DT, An J, Wong JJ, Park CH, Dogan S, Elvington MC, Rutherford RB. Peroxotitanate- and monosodium metal-titanate compounds as inhibitors of bacterial growth. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2011 Jun 1;97(3):348-54. PubMed PMID: 21472975.
  7. Rohani MG, DiJulio DH, An JY, Hacker BM, Dale BA, Chung WO. PAR1- and PAR2-induced innate immune markers are negatively regulated by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in oral keratinocytes. BMC Immunol. 2010 Oct 28;11:53. PMID: 21029417; PMCID: PMC2988058.
  8. Chung WO, An JY, Yin L, Hacker BM, Rohani MG, Dommisch H, DiJulio DH. Interplay of protease-activated receptors and NOD pattern recognition receptors in epithelial innate immune responses to bacteria. Immunol Lett. 2010 Jul 8;131(2):113-9. PubMed PMID: 20219537; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2885501.
  9. Yin L, Swanson B, An J, Hacker BM, Silverman GA, Dale BA, Chung WO. Differential effects of periopathogens on host protease inhibitors SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2. J Oral Microbiol. 2010 May 4;2.PMID: 21523231; PMCID: PMC3084571.

Kerry Streiff


Dr. Kerry Streiff graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Biology & Geology from Whitman College. After working in the wine industry, she returned to school and completed her Doctor of Dental Surgery at the University of Washington. Dr. Streiff enjoys the integration of artistry and science that dentistry provides and is committed to caring for people first and foremost. She loves to meet new people and share her passion for outdoor activities, traveling, cooking, and wine.

Dr. Streiff is very involved in local and international service efforts and believes it is very important to give back to communities in need. In addition to volunteering with Medical Teams International, Union Gospel Mission, and the Special Olympics, Doctor. Streiff returns to Guatemala each year with her father and a group called Nuevas Sonrisas (New Smiles) to work with local children.

  • Omicron Kappa Upsilon Dental Honor Society
  • Academy of Dental Materials Award
  • American Academy of Gold Foil Operators Achievement Award
  • American College of Dentists Ferrier Memorial Prize
  • Office of Educational Partnerships & Diversity Service Award
  • American Dental Association
  • Washington State Dental Association
  • Seattle-King County Dental Society
  • American Academy of Developmental Medicine & Dentistry
  • Special Care Dentistry Association

Cameron L. Randall


I am an Acting Assistant Professor in the Department of Oral Health Sciences at the University of Washington School of Dentistry. My program of research applies behavioral science, especially health psychology, to dentistry and dental public health. The overall goals of this work are to improve dental care delivery and oral health outcomes, with a major aim to reduce health disparities.

I have specific research interests in: (1) psychological processes involved in, and social/behavioral interventions for, dental/orofacial pain, dental treatment-seeking behavior, and oral health behavior; (2) the etiology, prevention, and amelioration of dental treatment avoidance, particularly as a function of dental care-related fear/anxiety; and (3) the dissemination of knowledge on these topics to healthcare professionals, and the implementation of evidence-based practice in the oral health arena. As a clinical psychologist, I treat patients in the oral medicine clinic at the University of Washington School of Dentistry.

I also engage in teaching—primarily for dental and medical students/residents—on topics such as behavioral science, clinical health psychology, health behavior change, healthcare-related fear/anxiety, pain management, pediatric behavior guidance, integrated care, Motivational Interviewing, interprofessional and patient-provider communication, and cultural humility.

My research applies social and behavioral science to dentistry. To guide my work, I draw on training in experimental psychopathology, behavioral genetics, clinical health psychology, dissemination and implementation science, public health, and translational science. Three specific areas of scientific inquiry currently characterize my multilevel, transdisciplinary program of research.

  1. Randall, C. L. (2018). On motivational interviewing for oral health promotion: State of the field and future directions. JDR Clinical and Translational Research, 3(4), 376-377. [PDF]
  2. Ford, C., Manegold, E., Randall, C. L., Aballay, A., & Duncan, C. L. (in press). Assessing the feasibility of implementing low-cost virtual reality therapy during routine burn care. Burns, 44(4), 886-895. [PDF]
  3. McNeil, D. W., Kennedy, S. G., Randall, C. L., Addicks, S. H., Wright, C. D., Hursey, K. G., & Vaglienti, R. (2018). The Fear of Pain Questionnaire-9: Brief assessment of fear of pain. European Journal of Pain, 22(1), 39-48. [PDF]
  4. McNeil, D. W., Addicks, S. H., & Randall, C. L. (2017). Motivational interviewing for health behavior change. Oxford Handbooks Online. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935291.013.21 [PDF]
  5. Mittinty, M. M., Brennan, D. S., Randall, C. L., McNeil, D. W., Mittinty, M. N., & Jamieson, L. (2017). Influence of fear of pain and coping strategies on health-related quality of life and patient-anticipated outcomes in patients with chronic pain: Cross-sectional study protocol. JMIR Research Protocols, 6(9), e176. [PDF]
  6. Randall, C. L., & McNeil, D. W. (2017). Motivational interviewing as an adjunct to cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders: A critical review of the literature. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 24(3), 296-31. [PDF]
  7. Addicks, S. H., McNeil, D. W., Randall, C. L., Goddard, A., Romito, L., Sirbu, C., Kaushal, G., Metzger, A., & Weaver, B. D. (2017). Dental care-related fear and anxiety: Distress tolerance as a possible mechanism. JDR Clinical & Translational Research, 2(3), 304-311. [PDF]
  8. Randall, C. L., Wright, C. D., Chernus, J., McNeil, D. W., Feingold, E., Crout, R. J., Neiswanger, K., Weyant, R. J., Shafer, J.R., & Marazita, M. L. A preliminary genome-wide association study of pain-related fear: Implications for orofacial pain. Pain Research and Management, 2017, 7375468. [PDF]
  9. Randall, C. L., Shaffer, J. R., McNeil, D. W., Crout, R. J., Weyant, R. J., & Marazita, M. L. (2017). Toward a genetic understanding of dental fear: Evidence of heritability. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 45(1), 66-73. [PDF]
  10. Randall, C. L., McNeil, D. W., Shaffer, J. R., Crout, R. J., Weyant, R. J., & Marazita, M. L. (2016). Fear of pain mediates the association between MC1R genotype and dental fear. Journal of Dental Research, 95(10), 1132-1137. [PDF]
  11. McNeil, D. W., Hayes, S. E., Randall, C. L., Polk, D. E., Neiswanger, K., Shaffer, J. R., Weyant, R. J., Foxman, B., Kao, E., Crout, R. J., Chapman, S., Brown, L. J., Maurer, J. L., & Marazita, M. L. (2016). Depression and a Rural Environment are Associated with Poor Oral Health among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia. Behavior Modification, 40(2), 325-340. [PDF]
  12. Bamonti, P. M., Keelan, C. M., Larson, N., Mentrikoski, J. M., Randall, C. L., Sly, S. K., Travers, R. M., & McNeil, D. W. (2014). Promoting ethical behavior by cultivating a culture of self-care during graduate training: A call to action. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 8(4), 253-260[PDF]
  13. Randall, C. L., Shulman, G. P., & McNeil, D. W. (2014). Gagging during dental treatment: Associations with dental care-related fear, fear of pain, and beliefs about treatment. Journal of the American Dental Association, 145, 452-458. [PDF]
  14. Randall, C. L., McNeil, D. W., Crout, R. J., Weyant, R. J., & Marazita, M. L. (2013). Collecting psychosocial self-report data in oral-health research: Impact of literacy level and computerized administration. Social Science and Dentistry, 2(2), 80-87. [PDF]

James E. Newman Jr.

Research Interests

Digital teaching methods in the Dental Anatomy Curriculum

Sara Gordon


Dr. Sara Gordon is Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and Professor of Oral Medicine at the University of Washington, School of Dentistry.

A 1986 graduate of Dalhousie University Faculty of Dentistry, she established and ran a successful general dental practice in Nova Scotia for 8 years. During these years she also taught oral diagnosis and oral pathology at Dalhousie University part time, practiced in the university Mouth Clinic, and consulted for the children’s hospital and an Alzheimer facility.  Dr. Gordon was an oral pathology resident at University Hospital, London, Ontario 1993-1997 and completed a Master of Science in Pathology in 1996, with a thesis entitled Foreign Body Gingivitis. Dr. Gordon taught general, systemic, and oral pathology at the University of Detroit Mercy 1997-2006 and practiced in the oral medicine, radiology, oral diagnosis, and screening clinics. She established and directed the UDM Tobacco Dependence Treatment Program. She also practiced at the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Service at St John Hospital in Detroit.  In Chicago from 2006-2014, Dr. Gordon taught general, systemic, and oral pathology at the University of Illinois at Chicago and practiced in the oral medicine clinic. She established and directed the UIC Oral Pathology Diagnostic Service. She moved to the University of Washington in 2014 to help establish the new curriculum.

Dr. Gordon is a Diplomate of the American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, a Fellow of the Royal College of Dentists of Canada in both Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, and a Fellow in Dental Surgery of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Scotland. She is a Fellow, Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM), Drexel University.

Dr. Gordon is a past president of the Canadian Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Oral Medicine. She is a site consultant for oral pathology, for the American Dental Association’s Commission on Dental Accreditation, and a national specialty examiner in oral medicine and oral pathology for the Royal College of Dentists of Canada. She has served on the executive committees of numerous professional organizations including the American Academy of Oral Pathology, Council of Michigan Dental Specialties, Nova Scotia Dental Association, and several sections of the American Dental Education Association.

Dr. Gordon has taught more than 120 continuing education courses, and authored or co-authored nearly 100 journal articles, textbook chapters, posters and abstracts. She is currently very active nationally in dental education. Her research interests lie at the convergence of oral health and systemic health.

  1. Davis JM, Arnett M, Loewen JM, Romito LM, Gordon SC. Tobacco Dependence Education: a survey of US and Canadian dental schools. J Am Dent Assoc. 2016;147(6):405-12.
  2. Gordon SC, Donoff B. Problems and solutions for interprofessional education in North American dental schools. In: Impact of Oral Health on Interprofessional Collaborative Practice. Linda Kaste and Leslie Halpern, ed. Dental Clinics of North America. 2016;60(4):811-24.
  3. Gordon SC, MacDonald NE. Dealing with measles in dental practice: a forgotten foe makes a comeback. J Am Dent Assoc. July 2015, 146(7):558-60.
  4. Fitzpatrick S, Hirsch S, Gordon SC. The malignant transformation of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: a systematic review. J Am Dent Assoc. 2014;145(1):45-56.
  5. Szylkowska E, Kaste LM, Schreiner J, Gordon SC, Lee DJ. Comparison of systemic health conditions between African American and Caucasian complete denture patients. J Prosthodont. 2014;23(5):341-6.
  6. Halpern LR, Kaste LM, Briggs C, DiPietro LA, Erwin K, Frantsve-Hawley K, Gordon SC, Heaton B, Henshaw MM, Joskow R, Reisine SC, Sinkford JC. Preface: Women’s oral health: growing evidence for enhancing perspectives. In: Gender Disparities in Oral Health and Disease, Leslie Halpern and Linda Kaste, ed. Dental Clinics of North America. 2013;57(2): xv-xxviii.
  7. Russell S, Gordon SC, Kaste LM, Lukacs J. Sex/Gender differences in tooth loss and edentulism: historical perspectives, biological factors, and sociologic reasons. In: Gender Disparities in Oral Health and Disease, Leslie Halpern and Linda Kaste, ed. Dental Clinics of North America. 57(2):317-37.
  8. Epstein JB, Gordon SC. Managing patients with red or red-white oral lesions. J Canadian Dent Assoc. J Can Dent Assoc. 2013;79:d95.
  9. Sun Y, Lu Y, Engeland C, Gordon SC, Sroussi HY. The anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and protective effect of S100A8 in endotoxemic mice. Mol Immunol. 2012;53(4):443-449.
  10. Gordon SC, Kaste LM, Barasch A, Safford MM, Foong WC, ElGeneidy A. Prenuptial dental extractions in Acadian women: first report of a cultural tradition. J Women’s Health (Larchmt). 2011;20(12):1813-8.
  11. Kolokythas A, Schwartz J, Pytynia KB, Panda S, Yao M, Homann B, Sroussi HY. Epstein JB, Gordon SC, Adami GR. Analysis of RNA from brush cytology detects changes in B2M CYP1B1 and KRT levels with oral squamous cell carcinoma in tobacco users. Oral Oncol. 2011;47(6):532-6.

Rebecca Slayton


Dr. Slayton is currently a Professor and recently retired as Director of The Center for Pediatric Dentistry and Chair of the UW Department of Pediatric Dentistry. She previously was Professor and Chair of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry. She is a consultant to the American Board of Pediatric Dentistry, an ad hoc reviewer for several leading dental journals and a member of the Executive Committee, Section on Oral Health for the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Dr. Slayton’s honors and awards include: Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) Fellow (2012-13); International College of Dentists; and Chief Dental Officer and Chair of the Scientific Advisory Committee, National Children’s Oral Health Foundation.


  • PhD, Genetics and Certificate in Pediatric Dentistry, University of Iowa, 1998
  • DDS, University of Iowa, 1992
  • MS, Engineering, University of Iowa, 1983
  • BA, Biology, Earlham College, 1980

Academic Interests

  • The molecular epidemiology of dental caries susceptibility
  • Caries risk assessment
  • Genetics education in dentistry

Peter Milgrom


Dr. Peter Milgrom is Professor of Oral Health Sciences and Pediatric Dentistry in the School of Dentistry and adjunct Professor of Health Services in the School of Public Health at the University of Washington. He directs the Northwest Center to Reduce Oral Health Disparities. He holds academic appointments at Case Western University, University of Rochester, and University of California, San Francisco. He maintains a dental practice limited to the care of fearful patients and served as Director of the UW Dental Fears Research Clinic. Dr. Milgrom’s work includes research on xylitol, the effectiveness of fluoride varnish and iodine in preschoolers, clinical efficacy and safety of diammine silver fluoride, motivational strategies to increase perinatal and well child dental visits in rural communities, and studies of cognitive interventions in pediatric and adult dental fear. The NIH, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, HRSA, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation support his work. Dr. Milgrom is author of 5 books and over 300 scientific articles. His latest book, Treating Fearful Dental Patients, was published in 2009.

Awards and Professional Service

Dr. Milgrom was Distinguished Dental Behavioral Scientist of the International Association for Dental Research for 1999. In 1999, and again in 2000, his work was recognized by the Giddon Award for research in the behavioral sciences in Dentistry. He received the Barrows Milk Award from IADR in 2000, recognizing his work for public health including the development of the Access to Baby and Child Dentistry (ABCD) program in Washington State. In 2003, Dr. Milgrom received a Special Commendation Award from the National Legal Aid and Defenders Association and the University of Washington Medical Center Martin Luther King, Jr. Community Service Award. In 2010, he received the Aubrey Sheiham Research Award for his work on xylitol. He serves on scientific review committees for the NIDCR, NIMHHD, NINDS, Center for Scientific Review at NIH and as a consultant to the FDA. In 2005, Dr. Milgrom was appointed the SAAD Visiting Professor of Pain and Anxiety Control at the King’s College Dental Institute, University of London, UK for a six-year term. In 2008 he was awarded the degree of Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Bergen, Norway in recognition of his work in social and behavioral dentistry. In 2012, he received the University of California, San Francisco Dental Alumni Gold Medal for his contributions to Dentistry. In 2012 he was also awarded the Norton Ross Award for Excellence in Clinical Research by the American Dental Association. In 2013, he was appointed to the Council of Scientific Affairs of the American Dental Association. In 2014, he received the Irwin M. Mandel Distinguished Mentor Award from the IADR. In 2015, he served as HMDP Expert in Dental Public Health for the Singapore Ministry of Health. Dr. Milgrom received his DDS from the University of California, San Francisco in 1972 and had a previous position at the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

In the last few years, Dr. Milgrom has spoken to dental associations in Argentina, Colombia, Peru, Philippines, and USA and at major universities in USA and abroad.


1. Milgrom P, Sutherland M, Shirtcliff M, Ludwig S, Smolen D. Children’s tooth decay in a public health program to encourage low-income pregnant women to utilize dental care. BMC Public Health. 2010 Feb 18;10:76.
2. Heaton, LJ, McNeil DW, Milgrom P. Propranolol and d-cycloserine as adjunctive medications in reducing dental fear in sedation practice. SAAD Dig. 2010 Jan;26:27-35.
3. Boyle CA, Newton T, Milgrom P. Development of a UK version of Carl: a computer program for conducting exposure therapy for treatment of dental injection fear. SAAD Dig. 2010 Jan;26:8-11.
4. Tut OK, Milgrom P. Topical iodine and fluoride varnish combined is more effective than fluoride varnish alone for protecting erupting first permanent molars: A retrospective cohort study. J Pub Health Dent. 2010 Mar 10. Epub ahead of print.
5. Milgrom P, Newton JT, Boyle C, Heaton LJ, Donaldson ANA. The effects of dental anxiety and irregular attendance on referral for dental treatment under sedation within the National Health Service in London. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010. June 10 Epub ahead of print.
6. Milgrom P, Lee RSY, Huebner CE, Conrad DA. Medicaid reforms in Oregon and suboptimal utilization of dental care of women of childbearing age. J Am Dent Assoc, 2010;141(6):688-95.
7. Boyle CA, Newton T, Heaton LJ, Afzali S, Milgrom P. What happens after referral for sedation? Brit Dental J 2010;208(11):E22.
8. Conrad DA, Lee RSY, Milgrom P, Huebner CE. Estimating the determinants of dentist productivity: New evidence. J Public Health Dent. 2010. June 10 Epub ahead of print.
9. Milgrom P, Lee RSY, Huebner CE, Conrad DA. Medicaid reforms in Oregon and suboptimal utilization of dental care of women of childbearing age. J Am Dent Assoc, 2010;141(6):688-95.
10. Lee RS, Milgrom P, Huebner CE, Conrad DA. Dentists’ perceptions of barriers to providing dental care to pregnant women. Women’s Health Issues. 2010 Sep;20(5):359-65.
11. Castillo JL, Rivera S, Aparicio T, Lazo R, Aw TC, Mancl LL, Milgrom P. The short-term effects of diammine silver fluoride on tooth sensitivity: a randomized controlled trial. J Dent Res. 2011 Feb;90(2):203-8. Epub 2010 Nov 30.
12. Bazargan N, Chi DL, Milgrom P. Exploring the potential for foreign-trained dentists to address workforce shortages and improve access to dental care for vulnerable populations in the United States: a case study from Washington State. BMC Health Serv Res. 2010 Dec 10;10:336.
13. Kloetzel MK, Huebner CE, Milgrom P. Referrals for dental care during pregnancy. J Midwifery Women’s Health. 2011 Mar-Apr;56(2):110-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1542-2011.2010.00022.x. Epub 2011 Feb 28.
14. Milgrom P. Restorative treatment of primary teeth using compomer is not more effective than treatment with amalgam in preventing new tooth decay in children. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2011 Mar;11(1):41-2.
15. Armfield JM, Milgrom P. A clinician guide to patients afraid of dental injections and numbness. SAAD Dig. 2011 Jan;27:33-9.
16. Rethman MP, Beltran-Aguilar ED, Billings RJ et al. Nonfluoride caries-preventive agents: executive summary of evidence-based clinical recommendations. J Am Dent Assoc. 2011;142:1065-1071.
17. Nelson S, Milgrom P. Minority participation in a school-based randomized clinical trial of tooth decay prevention in the United States. Contemp Clin Trials. 2011 Oct 1 [Epub ahead of print].
18. Roberts MC, Soge OO, Horst JA, Ly KA, Milgrom P. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a dental school clinic surfaces and students. Am J Infect Control. 2011;39(8):628-32.
19. Kagihara LE, Huebner CE, Mouradian WE, Milgrom P, Anderson BA. Parents’ perspectives on a dental home for children with special health care needs. Spec Care Dentist. 2011;31(5):170-77.
20. Nelson S, Mandelaris J, Ferretti G, Heima M, Spiekerman C, Milgrom P. School screening and parental reminders in increasing dental care for children in need: a retrospective cohort study. J Pub Health Dent. 2011 Oct 10. doi:10.1111/j.1752-7325.2011.00282.x. [Epub ahead of print]
21. Milgrom P, Chi DL. Prevention-centered caries management strategies during critical periods in early childhood. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2011 Oct;39(10):735-41.
22. Milgrom P, Tut OK, Mancl LA. Topical iodine and fluoride varnish effectiveness in the primary dentition: A quasi-experimental study. J Dent Child (Chic). 2011 Sep-Dec;78(3):143-7.
23. Kloetzel MK, Huebner CE, Milgrom P, Littell CT, Eggertsson H. Oral health in pregnancy: educational needs of dental professionals and office staff. J Public Health Dent. 2012 Apr 16: doi:10.1111/j.1752-7325.2012.00333.x. [Epub ahead of print]
24. Milgrom P, Tanzer JM. Perspectives on PACS: where is caries prevention clinical research going? J Dent Res. 2012 Feb:91(2):122-4. Epub 2011 Dec 7.
25. Grembowksi D, Spiekerman C, Milgrom P. Social gradients in dental health among low-income mothers and their young children. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2012;23:570-88.
26. Shinga-Ishihara C, Nakai Y, Milgrom P, Söderling E, Tolvanen M, Murakami K. Xylitol carryover effects on salivary mutans streptococci after 13 months of chewing xylitol gum. Caries Res 2012;46(6):519-22. doi: 10.1159/000341221. Epub 2012 Aug 10.
27. Milgrom P, Söderling EM, Nelson S, Chi DL, Nakai Y. Clinical evidence for polyol efficacy. Adv Dent Res. 2012 Sep;24(2):112-6. doi: 10.1177/0022034512449467.
28. Milgrom P, Huebner CE, Mancl L, Garson G, Grembowski D. Counseling on early childhood caries transmission by dentists. J Public Health Dent. 2012 Sep 13. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-7325.2012.00356.x.
29. Coolidge T, Irwin SP, Leyster KA, Milgrom P. Determinants of receiving intravenous sedation in a sample of dentally-fearful patients in the USA. SAAD Dig. 2012 Jan;28:52-60.
30. Vasquez E, Zegarra G, Chirinos E, Castillo JL, Taves DR, Watson GE, Dills R, Mancl LL, Milgrom P. Short term serum pharmacokinetics of diammine silver fluoride after oral application. BMC Oral Health. 2012 Dec 31;12:60. doi: 10.1186/1472-6831-12-60.
31. Dela Cruz A, Mueller G, Milgrom P, Coldwell SE. A community-based randomized trial of postcard mailings to increase dental utilization among low-income children. J Dent Child (Chi) 2012 Sep-Dec;79(3):154-8.
32. Milgrom P. Tooth decay may be associated with increased risk of dental pain in 5-year olds. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2013 Mar;13(1):25-6.
33. Milgrom P, Tut OK, Gilmatam J, Gallen M, Chi DL. Areca use among adolescents in Yap and Pohnpei, the Federated States of Micronesia. Harm Reduct J. 2013 Oct 17;10:26. doi: 10.1186/1477-7517-10-26. PubMed PMID: 24134714; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3854772.
34. Milgrom P, Riedy CA, Weinstein P, Mancl LA, Garson G, Huebner CE, Smolen D, Sutherland M. Design of a community-based intergenerational oral health study: “Baby Smiles”. BMC Oral Health. 2013 Aug 6;13(1):38. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23914908; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3751087.
35. Melbye ML, Chi DL, Milgrom P, Huebner CE, Grembowski D. Washington state foster care: dental utilization and expenditures. J Public Health Dent. 2013 Jul 26. doi: 10.1111/jphd.12027. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23889590.
36. Nelson S, Albert JM, Geng C, Curtan S, Lang K, Miadich S, Heima M, Malik A, Ferretti G, Eggertsson H, Slayton RL, Milgrom P. Increased enamel hypoplasia and very low birthweight infants. J Dent Res. 2013 Sep;92(9):788-94. doi: 10.1177/0022034513497751. Epub 2013 Jul 15. PubMed PMID: 23857641; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3744269.
37. Lee HH, Milgrom P, Starks H, Burke W. Trends in death associated with pediatric dental sedation and general anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth. 2013 Aug;23(8):741-6. doi: 10.1111/pan.12210. Epub 2013 Jun 14. PubMed PMID: 23763673; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3712625.
38. Milgrom P, Huebner CE, Mancl LA, Chi DL, Garson G, Grembowski D. County-level characteristics as predictors of dentists’ ECC counseling in the USA: a survey study. BMC Oral Health. 2013 May 20;13:23. doi: 10.1186/1472-6831-13-23. PubMed PMID: 23688178; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3679951.
39. Milgrom P. Tooth decay may be associated with increased risk of dental pain in 5-year-olds. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2013 Mar;13(1):25-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jebdp.2013.01.003. PubMed PMID: 23481012.
40. Heaton LJ, Mancl LA, Grembowski D, Armfield JM, Milgrom P. Unmet dental need in community-dwelling adults with mental illness: results from the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. J Am Dent Assoc. 2013 Mar;144(3):e16-23. PubMed PMID: 23449910; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3613122.
41. Chi DL, Milgrom P, Carle AC, Huebner CE, Mancl LA. Multilevel factors associated with dentists’ counseling of pregnant women about periodontal health. Spec Care Dentist. 2014 Jan-Feb;34(1):2-6. doi: 10.1111/scd.12014. Epub 2013 Feb 28 PubMed PMID: 24382365; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3879956.
42. Chi DL, Tut O, Milgrom P. Cluster-randomized Xylitol Toothpaste Trial for Early Childhood Caries Prevention. J Dent Child (Chic). 2014;81(1):27-32. PubMed PMID: 24709430.
43. Weinstein P, Milgrom P, Riedy CA, Mancl LA, Garson G, Huebner CE, Smolen D, Sutherland M, Nykamp A. Treatment fidelity of brief motivational interviewing and health education in a randomized clinical trial to promote dental attendance of low-income mothers and children: Community-Based Intergenerational Oral Health Study “Baby Smiles”. BMC Oral Health. 2014 Feb 24;14(1):15. doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-15. PubMed PMID: 24559035.
44. Shinga-Ishihara C, Nakai Y, Milgrom P, Murakami K, Matsumoto-Nakano M. Cross-cultural validity of a dietary questionnaire for studies of dental caries risk in Japanese. BMC Oral Health. 2014 Jan 2;14:1. doi: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-1. PubMed PMID: 24383547; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3898231.
45. Lee W, Spiekerman C, Heima M, Eggertsson H, Ferretti G, Milgrom P, Nelson S. The Effectiveness of Xylitol in a School-Based Cluster-Randomized Clinical Trial. Caries Res. 2014 Nov 21;49(1):41-49. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25428785.
46. Nelson S, Albert JM, Soderling E, Malik A, Curtan S, Geng C, Milgrom P. Increased number of teeth predict acquisition of mutans streptococci in infants. Eur J Oral Sci. 2014 Oct;122(5):346-52. doi: 10.1111/eos.12147. Epub 2014 Sep 3. PubMed PMID: 25183438; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4163102.
47. Milgrom P, Taves DM, Kim AS, Watson GE, Horst JA. Pharmacokinetics of fluoride in toddlers after application of 5% sodium fluoride dental varnish. Pediatrics. 2014 Sep;134(3):e870-4. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-3501. Epub 2014 Aug 18. PubMed PMID: 25136045; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4143996.
48. Casamassimo PS, Lee JY, Marazita ML, Milgrom P, Chi DL, Divaris K. Improving children’s oral health: an interdisciplinary research framework. J Dent Res. 2014 Oct;93(10):938-42. doi: 10.1177/0022034514547273. Epub 2014 Aug 13. PubMed PMID: 25122218.
49. Huebner CE, Chi DL, Masterson E, Milgrom P. Preventive dental health care experiences of preschool-age children with special health care needs. Spec Care Dentist. 2014 Jul 31. doi: 10.1111/scd.12084. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25082666.
50. Milgrom P. Management of patients with active caries. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2014 Jul;42(7):449-53. PubMed PMID: 25076627.
51. Huebner C, Milgrom P. Evaluation of a parent-designed programme to support tooth brushing of infants and young children. Int J Dent Hyg. 2014 Jul 29. doi: 10.1111/idh.12100. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25070036.
52. Huebner CE, Milgrom P, Mancl LA, Smolen D, Sutherland M, Weinstein P, Riedy CA. Implementation partnerships in a community-based intergenerational oral health study. Community Dent Health. 2014 Dec;31(4):207-11. PMID: 25665353.
53. Heima M, Lee W, Milgrom P, Nelson S. Caregiver’s education level and child’s dental caries in African Americans: A path analytic study. Caries Res. 2015;49(2):177-83. PMID:25661111.
54. Lee W, Spiekerman C, Heima M, Eggertsson H, Ferretti G, Milgrom P, Nelson S. The effectiveness of xylitol in a school-based cluster randomized clinical trial. Caries Res. 2015;49(1):41-9. PMID:25428785.
55. Sun BC, Chi DL, Schwarz E, Milgrom P, Yagapen A, Malveau S, Chen Z, Chan B, Danner S, Owen E, Morton V, Lowe RA. Emergency department visits for nontraumatic dental problems: a mixed-methods study. Am J Public Health. 2015 May;105(5):947-55. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302398. Epub 2015 Mar 19. PubMed PMID: 25790415.
56. Cunha-Cruz J, Milgrom P, Shirtcliff RM, Huebner CE, Ludwig S, Allen G, ScottJ. “Everybody brush!”: protocol for a parallel-group randomized controlled trial of a family-focused primary prevention program with distribution of oral hygiene products and education to increase frequency of toothbrushing. JMIR Res Protoc.2015 May 22;4(2):e58. doi: 10.2196/resprot.4485. PubMed PMID: 26002091; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4457936.
57. Cunha-Cruz J, Milgrom P, Shirtcliff RM, Bailit HL, Huebner CE, Conrad D,Ludwig S, Mitchell M, Dysert J, Allen G, Scott J, Mancl L. Population-centered Risk- and Evidence-based Dental Interprofessional Care Team (PREDICT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2015 Jun 20;16:278. doi:10.1186/s13063-015-0786-y. PubMed PMID: 26091669; PubMed Central PMCID:PMC4475615.
58. Riedy CA, Weinstein P, Mancl L, Garson G, Huebner CE, Milgrom P, Grembowski D, Shepherd-Banigan M, Smolen D, Sutherland M. Dental attendance among low-income women and their children following a brief motivational counseling intervention: A community randomized trial. Soc Sci Med. 2015 Nov;144:9-18. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.09.005. Epub 2015 Sep 8. PubMed PMID: 26372934; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4610142.
59. Milgrom P, Tut OK, Gallen M, Mancl L, Spillane N, Chi DL, Ramsay DS. Symptoms with betel nut and betel nut with tobacco among Micronesian youth. Addict Behav. 2016 Feb;53:120-4. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.10.011. Epub 2015 Oct 8. PubMed PMID: 26476008.
60. Nelson S, Riedy C, Albert JM, Lee W, Slusar MB, Curtan S, Ferretti G,Cunha-Cruz J, Milgrom P. Family Access to a Dentist Study (FADS): A multi-center randomized controlled trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2015 Nov;45(Pt B):177-83. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2015.10.006. Epub 2015 Oct 20. PubMed PMID: 26500170; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4674313.
61. Heima M, Milgrom P. Soda Consumption May Increase Risk of Dental Caries in Primary Teeth of Low-income African Americans. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2015 Dec;15(4):200-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jebdp.2015.10.007. Epub 2015 Oct 28. PubMed PMID: 26698011
62. Horst JA, Ellenikiotis H, Milgrom PL. UCSF Protocol for Caries Arrest Using Silver Diamine Fluoride: Rationale, Indications and Consent. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2016 Jan;44(1):16-28. Review. PubMed PMID: 26897901; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4778976.

Trilby Coolidge


  • B.A. (High Honors), Philosophy and Psychology, University of California
  • Ph.D., Psychology, (minor in Quantitative Studies), University of Washington
  • Psychology Residency, Northwestern University Medical School

Research Interests

  • Decision-making
  • Behavior Change
  • Psychometrics
  • Dental Fear

Academic Activities

  • Co-Director, Dentex 471 (Ethics)
  • Member, Task Force on Professionalism and Ethics

Clinical Activities

  • Psychological services, Dental Fears Research Clinic


  1. Coolidge T, Irwin SP, Leyster KA, Milgrom P. (in press). Determinants of receiving intravenous sedation in a sample of dentally-fearful patients in the USA. SAAD Digest.
  2. Coolidge T, Skaret E, Heima M, Johnson EK, Hillstead MB, Farjo N, Asmyhr A, Weinstein P. (2011). Thinking About Going to the Dentist: A Contemplation Ladder to assess dentally-avoidant individuals’ readiness to go to a dentist. BMC Oral Health, 11:4.
  3. Arapostathis KN, Dabarakis NN, Coolidge T, Tsirlis A, Kotsanos N. (2010). Comparison of acceptance, preference and efficacy between jet injection INJEX and local infiltration anesthesia in 6-11 year old dental patients. Anesthesia Progress, 57, 3-12.
  4. Coolidge T, Hillstead MB, Farjo N, Weinstein P, Coldwell SE. (2010). Additional psychometric data for the Spanish Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, and psychometric data for a Spanish version of the Revised Dental Beliefs Survey. BMC Oral Health,10:12.
  5. Coolidge T, Heima M, Johnson EK, Weinstein P. (2009). The Dental Neglect Scale in Adolescents.BMC Oral Health 9:2.
  6. Weinstein P, Coolidge T, Raff CA, Riedy CA. (2009). Recruiting rural dentally-avoidant adolescents into an intervention study. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry, 10, 233-236.
  7. Kotsanos N, Coolidge T, Velonis D, Arapostathis KN. (2009). A form of ‘parental presence/absence’ (PPA) technique for the child patient with dental behaviour management problems. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry, 10, 90-92.
  8. Coolidge T, Heaton LJ, Milgrom P. (2009). The challenge of sedation with adolescents: Case studies and clinical recommendations. SAAD Digest, 25, 29-36.
  9. Heaton LJ, Coolidge T, Weinstein P. (2009). The Problem of Fear in Dentistry. In P. Milgrom P, Weinstein P, Heaton LJ., Treating Fearful Dental Patients: A Patient Management Handbook (3rd Ed.). Seattle: Dental Behavioral Resources, 5-34.
  10. Arapostathis KN, Coolidge T, Emmanouil D, Kotsanos N. (2008). Reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule – Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS). International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 18, 374-379.
  11. Coolidge T, Chambers MA, Garcia LJ, Heaton LJ, Coldwell SE. (2008). Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures. BMC Oral Health, 8: 15.
  12. Coolidge T, Arapostathis KN, Emmanouil D, Dabarakis N, Patrikiou A, Economides N, Kotsanos N. (2008). Psychometric properties of the Greek versions of the Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) and the Dental Fear Survey (DFS). BMC Oral Health 8:29.
  13. Pickrell JE, Heima M, Weinstein P, Coolidge T, Coldwell SE, Skaret E, Castillo J& Milgrom P. (2007) Using memory restructuring strategy to enhance dental behavior. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 17, 439-448.
  14. Coolidge T, Heima M, Coldwell SE, Weinstein P, Logan HL & Milgrom P. (2005). Reliability and validity of the Revised Iowa Dental Control Index in a Non-Clinical Sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 773-783.
  15. Coolidge T, Heima M, Coldwell SE, Weinstein P & Milgrom P. (2005). Psychometric properties of the Revised Dental Beliefs Survey. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 33, 289-297.
  16. Coolidge T, Heima M, Heaton LJ, Nakai Y, Höskuldsson Ó,  Smith TA, Weinstein P & Milgrom P. (2005). The Child Dental Control Assessment (CDCA) in youth: Reliability, validity and cross-cultural differences. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 6, 35-43.
  17. Nakai Y, Hirakawa T, Milgrom P, Coolidge T, Heima M, Mori Y, Ishihara C, Yakushiji N, Yoshida T & Shimono T. (2005). The Children’s Fear Survey Schedule – Dental Subscale in Japan.Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 33, 196-204.
  18. Kotsanos N, Arhakis A, Coolidge T.  (2005). Parental presence vs. absence in the operatory: A technique to manage the uncooperative child dental patient. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 6, 144-148.

Jing Zhang

Research Interests

Parkinson’s disease (PD), the most common serious movement disorder afflicting millions of Americans, is diagnosed when patients present with cardinal parkinsonian signs (bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and postural instability as depicted in the diagram on the left) and show a favorable responsiveness to levodopa or dopamine (DA) agonists.

Pathological hallmarks of PD are loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) with resultant depletion of DA and the presence of Lewy bodies in the remaining neurons (indicated by an arrow in the photo micrograph). Despite decades of extensive research, there is currently still no cure for the disease, largely because its pathogenesis has not been fully understood yet. In addition, there are quite a few other movement disorders that mimic PD clinically including response to levodopa and DA agonists, making an accurate diagnosis of PD difficult sometimes even in the best hands. Finally, the natural course of PD varies substantially, with most patients developing first mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and then dementia as the disease progresses.

1) understand the molecular mechanisms of Parkinson’s disease development
2) understand the molecular mechanisms of Parkinson’s disease progression
3) explore unique biomarkers for diagnosing Parkinson’s disease and monitoring its progression

Research Laboratory


  1. Montine, T. Shi, M, .and Zhang J (2010). Reduction in CSF amyloid b42 without a corresponding increase in tau species is commonly found in patients with Parkinson’s disease and cognitive impairment or dementia. Mov Disord In press (2010).
  2. Mata, I., Zhang, j and Zabeitian C, A SNCA Variant Associated with Parkinson’s Disease and Plasma α-Synuclein Level. Arch Neurol In press (2010).
  3. Shi M, Zabetian CP, Hancock AM, Ginghina C, Hong Z, Yearout D, Chung KA, Quinn JF, Peskind ER, Galasko D, Jankovic J, Leverenz JB, and Zhang J (2010). Significance and confounders of peripheral DJ-1 and alpha-synuclein in Parkinson’s disease. Neurosci Lett. 480:78–82, 2010.
  4. Liu J, Shi M, Hong Z, Zhang J, Bradner J, Quinn T, Beyer RP, Mcgeer PL, Chen S, and Zhang J(2010). Identification of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha as a mediator of neurotoxicity induced by alpha-synuclein. Proteomics. 10(11):2138-50, 2010.
  5. Rostomily RC, Born DE, Beyer RP, Jin J, Alvord EC Jr, Mikheev, AM, Matthews RT, Pan C, Khorasani L, Sonnen JA, Montine TJ, Shi M, and Zhang J (2010). Quantitative proteomic analysis of oligodendrogliomas with and without 1p/19q deletion. J Proteome Res. 7;9(5):2610-8, 2010.
  6. Caudle WM, Bammler TK, Lin Y, Pan S, and Zhang J (2010). Using ‘omics’ to define pathogenesis and biomarkers of Parkinson’s disease. Expert Rev Neurother, 10(6):925-42, 2010.
  7. Hong Z, Shi M, Chung KA, Quinn JF, Peskind ER, Galasko D, Jankovic J, Zabetian CP, Leverenz JB, Baird G, Montine TJ, Hancock AM, Hwang H, Pan C, Bradner J, Kang UJ, Jensen PH, and Zhang J(2010). DJ-1 and synuclein as biomarkers of Parkinson’s disease, Brain, 133:713-26, 2010.
  8. Oh JH, Pan S, Zhang J, Gao J, MSQ: A tool for quantification of proteomics data generated by LC-MALDI TOF/TOF based targeted quantitative proteomics platform. Rapid Comm Mass Spec, 24(4):403-8, 2010.
  9. Hwang H, Zhang JP, Chung KA, Leverenz JB, Zabetian CP, Peskind ER, Jankovic J, Su Z, Hancock AM, Pan C, Montine TJ, Pan S, Nutt J, Albin R, Gearing M, Beyer RP, Shi M, and Zhang J (2010). Glycoproteomics in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Mass Spec Reviews, 29(1):79-125.
  10. Caudle WM, Zhang J (2009). Glutamate, excitotoxicity, and programmed cell death in Parkinson disease. Exp Neurol. 220:230-3, 2009.
  11. Shi M, Bradner J, Bammler TK, Eaton DL, Zhang JP, Ye ZC, Wilson AM, Montine TJ, Pan C andZhang J (2009). Identification of synaptosomal glutathione S-transferase Pi as a key protein in Parkinson disease progression, Am J Pathol. 2009 Jun 4.
  12. Caudle WM, Kitsou E, Li J, Bradner J, Zhang J (2009). A role for a novel protein, nucleolin, in Parkinson’s disease, Neurosci Lett. 2009 Jul 31;459(1):11-5. Epub 2009 May 4.
  13. Liu J, Zhang JP, Shi M, Quinn T, Bradner J, Beyer R, Chen S, Zhang J (2009). Rab11a and HSP90 regulate recycling of extracellular alpha-synuclein. J Neurosci. 4;29(5):1480-5.
  14. Pan S, Aebersold R, Chen R, Rush J, Goodlett DR, McIntosh MW, Zhang J, Brentnall TA (2009), Mass spectrometry based targeted protein quantification: methods and applications, J. Proteome Res. 6;8(2):787-797.

Paul Yager

Paul Yager, a native of Manhattan, received his A.B. in Biochemistry from Princeton in 1975, and a Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Oregon in Eugene in 1980. He specialized in vibrational spectroscopy of biomolecules. He was a National Research Council Resident Research Associate at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC from 1980 to 1982, joining the staff of NRL as a Research Chemist in 1982. At NRL he focused on lipid microstructures and the development of biosensor technologies. He joined the faculty of the Department of Bioengineering at the University of Washington in Seattle in 1987 as Associate Professor.

Initial projects included work on biosensors, the structure of silk, and use of lipid microstructures for controlled release of pharmaceuticals. He was promoted to Professor in 1995, becoming Vice Chair in 2001. Since 1992, Yager has focused on development of microfluidic devices for the manipulation of biological fluids and the measurement of concentrations of analytes of biological relevance. Support to his laboratory and collaborators has been received from NSF, NIH, DARPA, The Whitaker Foundation, the government of Singapore, and private companies including MesoSystems, Senmed Medical Ventures and Hewlett Packard. The support from Senmed resulted in the creation of Micronics, Inc., a Redmond, WA-based company dedicated to microfluidic solutions for problems in the life sciences and medicine.

The primary goal of current work in his laboratory is decentralization of biomedical diagnostic testing in the developed and developing worlds through a program called Distributed Diagnosis and Home Healthcare. The specific aim is the development of microfluidic devices and systems for optical bioassays. Learn more about Paul Yager.

  1. Microcontact printed antibodies on gold surfaces: function, uniformity, and silicone contamination, Foley, J., Fu, E., Gamble, L. and Yager, P., Langmuir, 24(7):3628–3635 (2008)
  2. Experimental and model investigation of the time-dependent 2-dimensional distribution of binding in a herringbone microchannel , Foley, J.O., Mashadi-Hossein, A., Fu, E., Finlayson, B.A., and Yager, P., Lab on a Chip, 8(4): 557–564 (2008)
  3. Point-of-care diagnostics for global health. Yager , P., Domingo , G.J., and Gerdes, J., Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, 10: 107–144 (2008)
  4. A method for characterizing adsorption of flowing solutes to microfluidic device surfaces, Hawkins, K. R., Steedman, M. R., Baldwin, R. R., Fu, E., Ghosal, S., and Yager, P., Lab on a Chip, 7(2), 281–285 (2007)
  5. SPR imaging-based salivary diagnostics system for the detection of small molecule analytes, Fu, Elain, Chinowsky, T., Nelson, K., Johnston, K., Edwards, T., Helton, K., Grow, J., Miller, J. W., and Yager, P., Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1098: 335–344 (2007)
  6. Concentration gradient immunoassay I. a rapid immunoassay based on interdiffusion and surface binding in a microchannel, Nelson, K. E., Foley, J. O., and Yager, P., Analytical Chemistry, 79(10): 3542–3548 (2007)
  7. Concentration gradient immunoassay II. computational modeling for analysis and optimization, Foley, J. O., Nelson, K. E., Mashadi-Hossein, A., Finlayson, B.A., and Yager, P. Analytical Chemistry, 79(10): 3549–3553 (2007)
  8. Investigation of heterogeneous electrochemical processes using multi-stream laminar flow in a microchannel, Hasenbank, M. S., Fu, E., Nelson, J. B., Schwartz, D. T., and Yager, P., Lab on a Chip, 7(4): 441–447 (2007)
  9. Interfacial instabilities affect microfluidic extraction of small molecules from non-Newtonian fluids, Helton, K.L. and Yager, P., Lab on a Chip, 7(11):1581–1588 (2007)
  10. Microfluidic lab-on-a-chip for microbial identification on a DNA microarray, Lee, H.H. and Yager, P., Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 12:634–639 (2007)
  11. Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health, Yager, P., Edwards, T., Fu, E., Helton, K., Nelson, K., Tam, M. and Weigl, B., Nature, 442(7101). 412–418 (2006)
  12. One-dimensional surface plasmon resonance imaging system using wavelength interrogation, Fu, E., Ramsey, S., Thariani, R., and Yager, P., Review of Scientific Instruments, 77 (7): Art. No. 076106 (2006)
  13. Recirculating flow accelerates DNA microarray hybridization in a microfluidic device, Lee, H.H., Smoot, J., McMurray, Z., Stahl, D. A., and Yager, P., Lab on a Chip, 6 (9): 1163–1170 (2006)
  14. Simple quantitative optical method for monitoring the extent of mixing applied to a novel microfluidic mixer, Munson, M.S. and Yager, P., Analytica Chimica Acta, 501(1), 63-71 (2004)
  15. Controlled microfluidic reconstitution of functional protein from an anhydrous storage depot, Garcia, E., Kirkham, J. R., Hatch, A.V, Hawkins, K.R. and Yager, P., Lab on a Chip, 4, 78-82 (2004)
  16. Characterization of a wavelength-tunable surface plasmon resonance microscope, Fu, E., Chinowsky T., Foley, J., Weinstein J., and Yager, P., Review of Scientific Instruments, 75(7), 2300-2304 (2004).
  17. Diffusion-based analysis of molecular interactions in microfluidic devices, Hatch, A., Garcia, E. and Yager, P., IEEE Proceedings, 92(1), 126-139 (2004)
  18. Suppression of non-specific adsorption using sheath flow, Munson, M. S., Hasenbank, M. S., Fu, E. and Yager, P., Lab on a Chip, 4, 438-445 (2004).

Zipora Reuveni


Our long-term goal is to identify means to ameliorate age-related muscle deterioration (sarcopenia) and combat muscle wasting in muscular dystrophy. Sarcopenia is characterized by a decline in mass, strength, and endurance of skeletal muscles, and by fat accumulation between and within myofibers. Subtle muscle injuries that occur during routine muscle activity raise a continuous demand for functional myofiber repair throughout life. However, myogenic stem cell performance declines in old age and this decline can be a contributory factor to sarcopenia. We investigate satellite cells, classically defined tissue specific myogenic stem cells that reside beneath the myofiber basal lamina, as well as non-myogenic progenitors associated with the microvasculature that may contribute to myogenesis by myogenic reprogramming. Our research approach is based on the view that muscle aging is not an isolated event that starts late in life, but rather a continuum of ongoing developmental biology processes that progress with life.


  1. Keire P, Shearer A, Shefer G, Yablonka-Reuveni Z (2013) Isolation and culture of skeletal muscle myofibers as a means to analyze satellite cells. Methods Mol Biol. 946:431-468. Free public access in process. Pubmed
  2. Stuelsatz P, Keire P, Almuly R, Yablonka-Reuveni Z (2012) A Contemporary Atlas of the Mouse Diaphragm: Myogenicity, Vascularity, and the Pax3 Connection. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 60: 638-657. Free public access in process. Pubmed
  3. Danoviz ME, Yablonka-Reuveni Z (2012) Skeletal muscle satellite cells: Background and methods for isolation and analysis in a primary culture system. Methods Mol Biol. 798: 21-52.Pubmed
  4. Yablonka-Reuveni Z (2011) The skeletal muscle satellite cell: still young and fascinating at 50. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 59: 1041-1059. Pubmed
  5. Choi, SJ, Yablonka-Reuveni Z, Kaiyala KJ, Ogimoto K, Schwartz MW, Wisse BE (2011) Increased energy expenditure and leptin sensitivity account for low fat mass in myostatin deficient mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 300: E1031-1037.  Pubmed
  6. Yablonka-Reuveni Z, Day K (2011) Skeletal muscle stem cells in the spotlight: the satellite cell. In: Regenerating the Heart: Stem Cells and the Cardiovascular System (“Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine Series”). Cohen I , Gaudette G, eds. Springer, Humana Press, Chapter 11, pp. 173-200.
  7. Shefer G, Rauner G, Yablonka-Reuveni Z, Benayahu D (2010) Reduced satellite cell numbers and myogenic capacity in aging can be alleviated by endurance exercise. PLoS One. 2010 Oct 12;5(10):e13307 Pubmed

Rheem Totah


Research in the Totah lab is broadly centered on drug-endogenous substrate interactions. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are mainly known for their ability to metabolize xenobiotics. However, some isozymes are also involved in the metabolism of endogenous substrates such as retinoic acid, steroids and essential fatty acids. We are interested in studying the xenobiotics-endogenous substrate interaction and its potential for inducing tissue-specific toxicity in the kidney, heart, and lung. We are also involved in translational research and collaborate with colleagues in the medical center to bridge together wet-lab science and clinical science. On a daily basis we use molecular biology tools, LC-MS/MS analysis, kinetic analysis and chemical synthesis to understand the biochemical and functional aspects of various P450 enzymes.

A separate area of research focuses on cytochrome P450 BM3, and several mutants, as a model system to study the mechanism of electron transfer from NADPH to the heme and the catalytic mechanism of mammalian P450 enzymes.


  1. Kaspera R, Naraharisetti SB, Tamraz B, Sahele T, Kwok P-Y, Marciante K, Heckbert SR, Psaty BM, Totah RA. “In Vitro Metabolism of Cerivastatin by CPY2C8 Variants Found in Patients Experiencing Rhabdomyolysis.” Pharmacogenetics and Genomics. In press.
  2. Naraharisetti SB, Lin YS, Rieder M, Marciante K, Psaty BM, Thummel KE, Totah RA. “Human Liver Expression of CYP2C8: gender, age and genotype effects.” Drug Metab. Dispos. 38(6):889-93 (2010).
  3. Lee C, Neul D, Clouser-Roche A, Dalvie D, Jiang J, Jones III JP, Wester M, Zientek M, Totah RA. “Identification of Novel Substrates for CYP2J2.” Drug Metab. Disp. 38:347-356 (manuscript featured on the cover of February 2010 edition).
  4. Smith, H., Jones, JP III, Kalhorn, T., Farin, F., Stapleton, P., Davis, C., Perkins, J., Blough, D., Hebert M., Thummel, K., Totah, R.A. “Role of Cytochrome P450 2C8 and 2J2 genotype in calcineurin inhibitor induced chronic kidney disease.” Pharmacogenetics and Genomics. Nov;18(11):943-53 (2008).
  5. Marciante, K., Totah, R.A., Heckbert, S., Smith, N., LeMaitre, R., Lumley, T., Rice, K., Hindorff, L., Bis, J., Hartman, B., Psaty, B, “Common Variation in Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenase Genes and the Risk of Incident Non-Fatal Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Stroke.” Pharmacogenet Genomics Jun;18(6):535-543 (2008).
  6. Totah, R.A., Sheffels, P., Roberts, T., Whittington, D., Thummel, K., Kharasch, ED. “Role of CYP2B6 in Stereoselective Human Methadone Metabolism.” Anesthesiology 108:363-74 (2008).
  7. Totah, R.A., Allen, KE, Sheffels, P., Whittington, D., and Kharasch, E.D. “Enantiomeric metabolic interactions and stereoselective human methadone metabolism.” J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 321:389-399 (2007).
  8. Gaedigk, A., Baker, D.W., Totah, R.A., Gaedigk, R., Pearce, R.E., Vyhlidal, C.A., Zeldin, D.C., and Leeder, J.S. “Variability of CYP2J2 expression in human fetal tissues.” J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 319:523-532 (2006).
  9. Totah, R.A., Rettie, A.E. “Principles of drug metabolism, enzymes and tissues.” ComprehensiveDrug Metabolism, 2nd ed. Vol. 5 (2006).
  10. Totah, R.A., Rettie, A.E. “CYP2C8: Substrates, Inhibitors, Pharmacogenetics and Clinical Relevance.” Clin Pharm Therap. 77: 341-352 (2005).
  11. Hanzlik, R. P., Harriman, S. P., Shaffer, C. L., Koen, Y. M., Totah, R. A., and Cerny, M. A. “The Oxidative Metabolism of Cyclopropylamines: Fate of the Three Carbons and Other Interesting Observations.” Synthesis and Application of Isotopically Labelled Compounds, 8:111-114 (2004).
  12. Huang, W., Lin, Y., McConn II, D., Calamia, J., Totah, R., Isoherranen, N., Glodowski, M., and Thummel, K. “Evidence of Significant Contribution From CYP3A5 to Hepatic Drug Metabolism.”Drug Met Dispos. 12:1434-1445 (2004).
  13. Totah, R. A. and Hanzlik, R. P. “Oxidative and Non-Oxidative Decarboxylation of N-Alkyl-N-phenylglycines by Horseradish Peroxidase: Mechanistic Switching by Hydrogen Peroxide, Oxygen and Solvent Deuterium.” Biochemistry 43:7907-7914 (2004) .
  14. Totah, R. A., and Hanzlik, R. P. “Non-Oxidative Decarboxylation of Glycine Derivatives by a Peroxidase.” J Am Chem Soc. 124:10000-10001 (2002).
  15. Totah, R. A., and Hanzlik, R. P. “Detection of Aminium Ion Intermediates: N-Cyclopropyl versus N-Carboxymethyl Groups as Reporters.” J Am Chem Soc. 123:10107-10108 (2001).

Patrick Stayton


Our research group is interested in elucidating the fundamental mechanisms of biomolecular recognition and applying the unique capabilities of biological molecules to biotechnologies. We would like to bridge the gap between understanding molecular structure-function relationships, and being able to utilize proteins/peptides/DNA for drug therapies, bioanalytics, diagnostics, and biomaterial development.


  1. Drobny, G. P., Long, J. R., Karlsson, T., Shaw, W., Popham, J., Oyler, N., Bower, P., Stringer, J., Gregory, D., Mehta, M., and and Stayton, P. S. “Structural studies of biomaterials using double-quantum solid-state NMR Spectroscopy” (2003) Annual Reviews of Physical Chemistry, 54, 531-571.
  2. Stayton, P. S., Shaw, W. J., Long, J. R., and Drobny, G. P. (2003) “Molecular Recognition at the Protein-HAP Interface” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 14, 370-376.
  3. Gilbert, M., Giachelli, C. M., and Stayton, P. S. (2003) “Biomimetic peptides that engage specific integrin-dependent signaling pathways and bind to calcium phosphate surfaces” J. Biomed. Mat. Res., 67, 69-77.
  4. McDevitt, T. C., Woodhouse, K. A., Murry, C. E., Hauschka, S. D., and Stayton, P. S. (2003) “Spatially Organized Layers of Cardiomyocytes on Biodegradable Polyurethane Films for Myocardial Repair ” J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 66, 586-595.
  5. Stayton PS. (2003) “Delivering the Vaccination Mail” Trends Biotechnol. 21, 465-467.
  6. Malmstadt, N., Yager, P., Hoffman, A. S., and Stayton, P. S. (2003) “A Smart Microfluidic Affinity Chromatography Matrix Composed of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-Coated Beads” Anal. Chem. (Accelerated Article) 75, 2943-2949.
  7. Murthy, N., Campbell, J., Fausto, N., Hoffman, A. S., and Stayton, P. S. (2003) “Design and synthesis of pH-responsive polymeric carriers that target uptake and enhance the intracellular delivery of oligonucleotides. ” J. Cont. Rel., 89, 365-74.
  8. Shimoboji, T., Larenas, E., Fowler, T., Kulkarni, S., Hoffman, A. S., and Stayton, P.S. (2002) “Photo-Responsive Polymer-Enzyme Switches” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99, 16592-6.
  9. McDevitt, T. C., Angello, J. C., Whitney, M. L., Reinecke, H., Hauschka, S. D., Murry, C. E., and Stayton, P. S. (2002) ” In vitro generation of differentiated cardiac myofibers on micropatterned laminin surfaces.” J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 60, 472-479.
  10. Ding, Z., Fong, R. B., Long, C. J., Hoffman, A. S. and Stayton, P. S. (2001) “Size-dependent control of the binding of biotinylated proteins to streptavidin using a polymer shield” Nature 411, 59-62.

Paul Nghiem

Research Interests

Skin cancer biology, particularly the molecular mechanism by which the protein kinase ATR mediates an essential cell cycle arrest following DNA damage such as by ultraviolet radiation.

A major portion of the lab is focused on basic, clinical and translational research aspects of Merkel cell carcinoma. We are involved in several clinical studies on this increasingly common and often lethal skin cancer to determine its basic genetic underpinnings as well as its clinical course and optimal management. The Merkel cell carcinoma Multicenter Interest Group (MMIG), an international collaborative group, has been formed to leverage diverse resources, interests and expertise to make a difference in this cancer.


  1. Boswell SA, Ongusaha PP, Nghiem P, Lee SW. The Protective Role of a Small GTPase RhoE Against UVB-induced DNA Damage in Keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 282(7):4850-4858, 2007.
  2. *Kawasumi M, Nghiem P.  Chemical genetics: Elucidating biological systems with small molecules.  J Invest Dermatol. 127(7):1577-84, 2007.
  3. *Koo S-W, Hirakawa S, Fujii S, Kawasumi M, Nghiem P.  Protection from photodamage by topical application of caffeine after UV. Br J Dermatol. 156:957, 2007.
  4. *Lu YP, Lou YR, Peng QY, Xie JG, Nghiem P, Conney AH. Effect of Caffeine on the ATR/Chk1 Pathway in the Epidermis of UVB-Irradiated Mice. Can Res. 68(7):2523-2529, 2008.
  5. *Heffernan T, Kawasumi M, Blasina A, Anderes K, Conney A, Nghiem P.  ATR–Chk1 Pathway Inhibition Promotes Apoptosis after UV Treatment in Primary Human Keratinocytes: Potential Basis for the UV Protective Effects of Caffeine.  J Invest Dermatol. 2009.
  6. * Lemos B, Storer B, Iyer J, Phillips JL, Bichakjian CK, Fang LC, Johnson TM, Liegeois-Kwon NJ, Otley CC, Paulson KG, Ross MI, Yu SS, Zeitouni NC, Byrd DR, Sondak VK, Gershenwald JE, Sober AJ, Nghiem P. Pathologic nodal evaluation improves prognostic accuracy in Merkel cell carcinoma: Analysis of 5,823 cases as the basis of the first consensus staging system for this cancer. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010. [PubMed]
  7. Kelly G. Paulson*, Joseph J. Carter*, Lisa G. Johnson, Kevin W. Cahill, Jayasri G. Iyer, David Schrama, Juergen C. Becker, Margaret M. Madeleine, Paul Nghiem**, Denise A.Galloway**. Antibodies to Merkel cell polyomavirus T-antigen oncoproteins reflect Merkel cell carcinoma tumor burden. Can Res. 2010. [PubMed]
  8. Kelly G. Paulson, Jayasri G. Iyer, Paul Nghiem. Asymmetric lateral distribution of melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma in the United States. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011.

Cecilia Giachelli


Current projects include:

  • Identifying and applying biomimetic strategies to cell-substrate interactions important for promoting endothelial survival and angiogenesis particularly in the context of biomaterial healing,
  • Biomolecular control of the foreign body reaction, with particular emphasis on the macrophage-mediated inflammatory response to biomaterials
  • Mechanistic studies aimed at developing novel therapeutic targets and approaches for preventing ectopic calcification in disease and medical devices
  • Cardiac valve and esophageal tissue engineering.


  1. Rajachar R, Truong A, Giachelli CM. The influence of surface mineral and osteopontin on the formation and function of murine bone marrow macrophage derived osteoclasts, J Biomed Mater Res, J Mater Sci Mat med, 2008.
  2. M. Linnes, B.D. Ratner, C.M. Giachelli. A Fibrinogen Based Precision Microporous Scaffold for Tissue Engineering: Development and Characterization. Biomaterials, 28(35):5298-306, 2007.
  3. Beckstead, B.L. and C.M. Giachelli. “Mimicking cell-cell interactions at the biomaterial-cell interface” J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006 Oct; 79(1):94-103.
  4. Li X, Ying-Yang H, Giachelli CM. Role of the Sodium Dependent Phosphate Cotransporter, Pit-1, in Vascular Smooth Muscle Calcification. Circ Res. 2006 98:905-12, 2006.
  5. Tsai A, Rice J, Liaw L, Ratner B, Giachelli CM. Osteopntin reduces foreign body giant cell formation in response to biomaterial implantation. Biomaterials, 26:5835-43, 2005.
  6. Ohri R, Tung E, Rajachar R, Giachelli CM. Mitigation of ectopic calcification in osteopontin-deficient mice by exogenous osteopontin: efficacy, potency and mechanism. Calcified Tissue Intl, 76:307-15, 2005.
  7. Cuy JL, Beckstead BL, Brown CD, Hoffman AS, Giachelli CM. Adhesive protein interactions with chitosan: consequences for valve endothelial cell growth on tissue-engineering materials. J Biomed Mater Res, 67A: 538-547, 2003.
  8. Wiester LM, Giachelli CM. Expression and function of the integrin, a9b1, in bovine aortic valve interstitial cells. J Heart Valve Disease, 12: 605-616, 2003.
  9. Speer MY, McKee MD, Guldberg RE, Liaw L, Yang HY, Tung E, Karsenty G, Giachelli CM. Inactivation of the osteopontin gene enhances vascular calcification of matrix gla protein-deficient mice: evidence for osteopontin as an inducible inhibitor of vascular calcification in vivo. J Exp Med 196: 1047-1055, 2002.
  10. Steitz SA, McKee MD, Liaw L, Giachelli CM. Osteopontin inhibits mineral deposition and promotes regression of ectopic calcification. Amer J Path 16:2035-2046, 2002.

Albert Folch


We design and use microfluidic devices to better mimic the real microenvironment of nerve and cancer cells when we culture them outside of the organism. We are microfluidic!​​ ​Examples of questions that interest us are how neurons find their targets during development (axon guidance​), how they establish their connections (synaptogenesis​), and how we sense odors (olfaction​), among other projects. We also build microfluidic devices that allow us to personalize chemotherapy ​and devices to study cancer stem cells​​​. Laboratory website.


  1. K.W. Moyes, C.G. Sip, W. Obenza, E. Yang, C. Horst, R.E. Welikson, S.D. Hauschka, A. Folch, and M. Laflamme, “Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes migrate in response to gradients of fibronectin and Wnt5a”, Stem Cells and Development 22, 1 (2013). Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes show robust promigratory responses to microfluidic gradients of fibronectin and Wnt5a.
  2. Adina Scott, Anthony K. Au, Elise Vinckenbosch, and Albert Folch, “A microfluidic D-subminiature connector”, Lab on a Chip 13, 2036 (2013). We present a novel microfluidic connector based on standard electronic components that are available worldwide.
  3. Peder Skafte-Pedersen, Christopher G. Sip, Albert Folch, and Martin Dufva, “Modular microfluidic systems using reversibly attached PDMS fluid control modules”, Journal of Micromech. Microeng. 23, 055011 (2013). We demonstrate the integration of PDMS-based fluid control modules with hard polymer chips made of PMMA.
  4. Scott, A., Weir, K., Easton, C., Huynh, W., Moody, W.J., and Folch, A., “A microfluidic microelectrode array for simultaneous electrophysiology, chemical stimulation, and imaging of brain slices”, Lab Chip 13, 527 (2013). We demonstrate electrophysiological recordings from the surface of brain slices using a PDMS device featuring multiple apertures that function as extracellular electrodes as well as chemical stimulation points.
  5. A. K. Au, H. Lai, B. R. Utela, and A. Folch, “Microvalves and Micropumps for BioMEMS”, Micromachines 2, 179 (2011). An in-depth review of the designs of micropumps and microvalves that have been used in the BioMEMS literature.
  6. C. G. Sip, N. Bhattacharjee, and A. Folch, “A Modular Cell Culture Device for Generating Arrays of Gradients Using Stacked Microfluidic Flows”, Biomicrofluidics 5, 022210 (2011). This device reports a microfluidic gradient generator for cell culture applications based on the use of stacked laminar flows.
  7. Hoyin Lai and Albert Folch, “Design and characterization of “single-stroke” peristaltic PDMS micropumps”, Lab Chip 11, 336 (2011). We demonstrate a new design of PDMS peristaltic pumps operated with a single control line.
  8. Anna Boardman, Tim Chang, Albert Folch, and Norman J. Dovichi, “Indium-Tin Oxide Coated Microfabricated Device for the Injection of a Single Cell into a Fused Silica Capillary for Chemical Cytometry”, Analytical Chemistry 82, 9959 (2010). We describe a microfabricated device for the capture and injection of a single mammalian cell into a fused silica capillary for subsequent analysis by chemical cytometry.
  9. Nirveek Bhattacharjee, Nianzhen Li, Thomas M. Keenan, and Albert Folch, “A neuron-benign microfluidic gradient generator for studying the response of mammalian neurons towards axon guidance factors”, Integrative Biology 2, 669 (2010). We record axonal growth of mouse embryonic cortical neurons in response to netrin gradients generated with a low-shear, open-bath microfluidic device.
  10. David M. Cate, Christopher Sip, and Albert Folch, “A microfluidic platform for generation of sharp gradients in open-access culture”, Biomicrofluidics 4, 044105 (2010). We demonstrate a membrane-based gradient generator that is compatible with open cell cultures.
  11. John M. Hoffman, Mitsuhiro Ebara, James J. Lai, Allan S. Hoffman, Albert Folch, and Patrick Stayton, “A helical flow, circular microreactor for separating and enriching “smart: polymer-antibody capture reagents”, Lab Chip 10, 3130 (2010). We report a mechanistic study of how flow and recirculation in a microreactor can be used to optimize the capture and release of stimuli-responsive polymer–protein reagents on stimuli-responsive polymer-grafted channel surfaces.
  12. Ellen Tenstad, Anna Tourovskaia, Albert Folch, Ola Myklebost, and Edith Rian, “Extensive adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of patterned human mesenchymal stem cells in a microfluidic device”, Lab Chip 10, 1401 (2010).–> Inside cover article.  Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of patterned human mesenchymal stem cells is demonstrated using long-term microfluidic perfusion.
  13. Figueroa, X.A., Cooksey, G.A., Votaw, S.V., Horowitz, L.F., and Folch, A., “Large-scale investigation of the olfactory receptor space using a microfluidic microwell array”, Lab Chip 10, 1120 (2010). –> Cover article & Cited in Chemical Technology Highlights section. We show simultaneous calcium recordings of mouse dissociated olfactory sensory neurons in large microarrays so that the whole repertoire of mouse olfactory receptors is probed in one experiment.
  14. Keenan, T.M., Frevert, C.W., Wu, A., Wong, V., and Folch, A., “A New Method for Studying Gradient-Induced Neutrophil Desensitization Based on an Open Microfluidic Chamber”, Lab Chip 10, 116 (2010). This paper demonstrates neutrophil chemotaxis measurements in an open microfluidic chamber.
  15. Sidorova, J.M. Li, N., Schwartz, D.C., Folch, A., and Monnat Jr., R.J. “Microfluidic-assisted analysis of replicating DNA molecules”, Nature Protocols 4, 849 (2009). This paper presents detailed protocols on how to stretch DNA on glass surfaces using microfluidic channels.

Michael Cunningham


Michael L. Cunningham, MD, PhD, is chief of the Division of Craniofacial Medicine and professor of pediatrics at the University of Washington School of Medicine. He is the medical director of Seattle Children’s Craniofacial Center and holds the Jean Renny Endowed Chair in Craniofacial Medicine. He is also an adjunct professor of Biological Structures, Oral Biology, and Pediatrics Dentistry at the University of Washington Schools of Medicine and Dentistry. Dr. Cunningham balances responsibilities in administration, patient care and research. He does bedside teaching of medical students, dental students and pediatric residents. His clinical interests focus on the diagnosis and long-term interdisciplinary care of children with craniofacial malformations with a particular interest in craniosynostosis. He is co-investigator on several clinical research projects, ranging from the epidemiology of positional plagiocephaly to the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea. Dr. Cunningham’s basic molecular and developmental biology lab has been active since 1993. Using mouse and human models Dr. Cunningham’s research team investigate the molecular causes of craniosynostosis and developmental pathogenesis of midface hypoplasia associated with syndromic craniosynostosis.


  1. Speltz ML, Collett B, Stott-Miller M, Starr JR, Heike CL, Wolfram-Aduan A, King D, Cunningham ML. Case-control study of neurodevelopment in infants with deformational plagiocephaly.Pediatrics. 2010 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID:20156894.
  2. Hing AV, Click E, Vessey K, Seto M, Holder U, Gruss J, Hopper R, Cunningham ML. Bilateral lambdoid and sagittal synostosis (BLSS): a unique craniosynostosis syndrome or predictable phenotype? Am J Med Genet A 2009; 149A(5):1024-1032.
  3. Ruiz-Correa S, Starr JR, Lin HJ, Kapp-Simon KA, Sze RW, Ellenbogen RG, Speltz ML, Cunningham ML. New severity indices for quantifying single-suture metopic craniosynostosis. Neurosurgery2008; 63(2):318-24; discussion 324-5.
  4. Cunningham ML, Seto ML, Ratisoontorn C, Heike CL, Hing AV. Syndromic craniosynostosis: from history to hydrogen bonds. Orthod Craniofac Res (Invited review) 2007; 10:67–81.
  5. Seto ML, Hing AV, Chang J, Hu M, Kapp-Simon KA, Patel PK, Burton BK, Kane A, Smyth MD, Hopper R, Ellenbogen RG, Stevenson K, Speltz ML, Cunningham ML. Isolated sagittal and coronal craniosynostosis associated with TWIST box mutations. Am J Med Genet A 2007; 143:678-686.
  6. Hatch NE, Hudson M, Seto ML, Cunningham ML, Bothwell M. Intracellular retention, degradation, and signaling of glycosylation-deficient FGFR2 and craniosynostosis syndrome-associated FGFR2C278F. J Biol Chem 2006; 281(37):27292-27305.
  7. Cunningham ML, Seto ML, Hing AV, Bull MJ, Hopkin RJ, Leppig KA. Cleidocranial dysplasia with severe parietal bone dysplasia: C-terminal RUNX2 mutations. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol2006; 76(2):78-85.
  8. Ratisoontorn C, Seto ML, Broughton KM, Cunningham ML. In-vitro differentiation profile of osteoblasts derived from patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Bone 2005; 36(4):627-634.
  9. Heike CL, Seto M, Hing AV, Palidin A, Hu FZ, Preston RA, Ehrlich GD, Cunningham ML. A century of Jackson-Weiss syndrome: further definition of clinical and radiographic findings in ‘lost’ descendants of the original kindred. Am J Med Genet 2001; 100(4):315-324.
  10. Dry GM, Yasinskaya YI, Williams JK, Erhlich G, Preston R, Gruss JS, Ellenbogen RG, Cunningham ML. Inhibition of apoptosis: a potential mechanism for syndromic craniosynostosis. Plast Reconstr Surg 2001; 107(2):425-432.

Peter Byers


We are pursuing several lines of research: the characterization of mutations in type I collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2) that give rise to forms of osteogenesis imperfecta and other disorders, the identification and characterization of mutations in the type III collagen gene (COL3A1) which give rise to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, characterization of mutations in other genes (e.g., COL5A1, COL5A2, PLOD1 and the N-terminal procollagen protease) that result in other forms of connective tissue disorder, identification of proteins in the intracellular and extracellular processing pathways that identify abnormal collagen proteins, and the mechanisms of mRNA processing in collagen genes to predict the outcome of splice site mutations. In addition, we are searching for other genes that may give rise to phenotypes of osteogenesis imperfecta, and determining the rate and genetic basis of parental mosaicism for mutations in these genes.

The majority of mutations in the COL1Al and COLlA2 genes that cause OI result in substitution for glycines within the triple helix. Most of the remainder alter splice sites. Our studies of the mutations suggest that in some instances the order of exon splicing may determine the effects of splice mutations; as a consequence we are studying the order of intron removal in such cell strains. One of the most puzzling aspects of OI has been the failure to identify mutations in all affected individuals. Using long amplification regions, we have noted low level splice defects in some such patients that result in the production of only a small amount of abnormal molecules due to the presence of 5-10% abnormal mRNA species as a consequence of mutations outside the canonical splice site sequences. However, it is clear that some mutations reside outside these two gene.

We have now characterized almost 400 mutations in our families with EDS type IV. These are more heavily weighted to point mutations that result in substitutions for glycine residues within the triple helix of the molecule than mutations that alter splice site integrity. Some mutations prohibit mRNA transport from the nucleus when introns that contain termination codons are included. These findings suggest that there is a link between splicing and nuclear recognition of premature termination codons that may be different from the recognition process that leads to cytoplasmic nonsense-codon mediated mRNA decay. The mechanisms of recognition of these structures is being pursued.

Similar approaches are being taken to disorders which result from several other genes involved in connective tissue biogenesis.


  1. Persikov AV, Pillitteri RJ, Amin P, Schwarze U, Byers PH, Brodsky B (Oct 2004) Stability related bias in residues replacing glycines within the collagen triple helix (Gly-Xaa-Yaa) in inherited connective tissue disorders., Human Mutation, 24(4)330-7
  2. Byers PH (Jul 2004) Determination of the molecular basis of Marfan syndrome: a growth industry., The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 114(2)161-3
  3. Schwarze U, Hata R, McKusick VA, Shinkai H, Hoyme HE, Pyeritz RE, Byers PH (May 2004) Rare autosomal recessive cardiac valvular form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome results from mutations in the COL1A2 gene that activate the nonsense-mediated RNA decay pathway., American Journal of Human Genetics, 74(5)917-30
  4. Kaiser FJ, Brega P, Raff ML, Byers PH, Gallati S, Kay TT, de Almeida S, Horsthemke B, Ludecke HJ (Feb 2004) Novel missense mutations in the TRPS1 transcription factor define the nuclear localization signal., European Journal of Human Genetics : Ejhg, 12(2)121-6
  5. Chamberlain JR, Schwarze U, Wang PR, Hirata RK, Hankenson KD, Pace JM, Underwood RA, Song KM, Sussman M, Byers PH, Russell DW (Feb 2004) Gene targeting in stem cells from individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta., Science, 303(5661)1198-201
  6. Palmeri S, Mari F, Meloni I, Malandrini A, Ariani F, Villanova M, Pompilio A, Schwarze U, Byers PH, Renieri A (Jun 2003) Neurological presentation of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV in a family with parental mosaicism., Clinical Genetics, 63(6)510-5
  7. Pace JM, Corrado M, Missero C, Byers PH (Mar 2003) Identification, characterization and expression analysis of a new fibrillar collagen gene, COL27A1., Matrix Biology : Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology, 22(1)3-14
  8. Takahara K, Schwarze U, Imamura Y, Hoffman GG, Toriello H, Smith LT, Byers PH, Greenspan DS (Sep 2002) Order of intron removal influences multiple splice outcomes, including a two-exon skip, in a COL5A1 acceptor-site mutation that results in abnormal pro-alpha1(V) N-propeptides and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type I., American Journal of Human Genetics, 71(3)451-65
  9. Marlowe A, Pepin MG, Byers PH (Jun 2002) Testing for osteogenesis imperfecta in cases of suspected non-accidental injury., Journal of Medical Genetics, 39(6)382-6
  10. Chuman H, Trobe JD, Petty EM, Schwarze U, Pepin M, Byers PH, Deveikis JP (Jun 2002) Spontaneous direct carotid-cavernous fistula in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: two case reports and a review of the literature., Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology : the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-ophthalmology Society., 22(2)75-81

C. Michele Lloid

Ms. Lloid is a recognized clinical expert on the oral tissue manifestations of bone marrow transplantation and graft versus host disease and has been involved in treating bone marrow transplant recipients. She is one of the key clinical personnel in Oral Medicine studies dealing with the management of transplant related oral mucositis, changes in oral microflora, oral tissue pathologies and other effects of transplant-related procedures. Her roles include recruiting subjects, collaborating in designing treatment and data collection protocols, organizing the collected data, ensuring study procedures were followed, collaborating on data analysis and interpretation, and collaborating on writing the resulting manuscripts.

  1. Lloid, Michele E. Oral Examination. In ONS Blood and Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplant Special Interest Group Newsletter. Volume 18, Issue 1 Feb. 2007
  2. Schubert, MM, Eduardo, FP, Guthrie, K, Franquine, JC, Bensadoun, RJ, Lloid, ME, Eduardo, CP, Niccoli-Filho, W, Marques, MM, Migliorati, CA, Hamdi, MA. Phase III randomized double-blind placebo controlled clinical trials to determine the efficacy of low energy laser therapy for the prevention of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Support Care Cancer. 15:1145-1147, 2007.
  3. Nash, RA, Johnston, L, Parker, P, McCune, JS, Storer, B, Slattery, JT, Furlong, T, Anasetti, C, Appelbaum, FR, Lloid, ME, Deeg, HF, Kiem, H-P, Martin, PJ, Schubert, MM, Witherspoon, RP, Forman, SJ, Blume, KJ, Storb, R. A Phase 1-2 Study of Mycophenolate Mofetil in Combination with Cyclosporine for Prophylaxis of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease after Myeloablative Conditioning and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. Boil Blood Marrow Transplant. 11:495-505, 2005.
  4. Robien, K, Schubert, MM, Bruemmer, B, Lloid, ME, Potter, JD, Ulrich, CM. Predictors of oral mucositis in patients receiving hematopoietic cell transplants for chronic myelogenous leukemia. J Clin Oncol, 22(7):1268-75, 2004.

Norma Wells

Current Research

  • Dental Hygiene Education
  • Community-based oral health promotion and program development
  • Dental caries research
  • International dental hygiene program development

Future Research

  • Community-wide strategies to promote oral health
  • Beta Defensins in caries prone children

Marilynn Rothen

Research Interests

Current research interests are primarily in the area of dental caries management and caries risk assessment, in addition to a long standing interest in the treatment of patients with dental fear and related behavior modification.


  1. Cuhna-Cruz, J., Wataha, J.C., Heaton, L.J., Rothen, M., Sobieraj, M., Scott, J., and Berg, J.  The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices in the northwest United States. J Am Dent Assoc 2013; 144:288-96.
  2. Cuhna-Cruz, J., Scott, J., Rothen, M., Mancl, L., Lawton, T., Brossel, K., and Berg, J. Salivary Characteristics and Dental Caries: Evidence from General Dental Practices. J Am Dent Assoc 2013; 144:e31-40.
  3. Rothen, M., Cunha-Cruz, J., Mancl, L., Leroux, B., Latzke Davis, B., Coyne, J., Gillette, J., Berg, J. Inter-examiner Reliability of Salivary Diagnostic Tests in a Practice-based Research Network. J Dent Hyg 2011; 85:143-50.
  4. Persson, G.R., Hitti, J., Verhelst, R., Vaneechoutte, M., Persson, R.E., Hirschi, R., Weibel, M., Rothen, M., Temmerman, M., Paul, K., Eschenbach, D. The vaginal microflora in relation to gingivitis. BMC Infectious Diseases 2009, 9:6.
  5. Ly, K.A., Riedy, C.A., Milgrom, P., Rothen, M., Roberts, M.C., Zhou, L. Xylitol Gummy Bear Snacks: A School-based Randomized Clinical Trial. BMC Oral Health 2008 Jul 25;8:20.
  6. Riedy, C.A., Milgrom, P., Ly, K.A., Rothen, M., Mueller, G., Hagstrom, M.K., Tolentino, E., Zhou, L., Roberts, M.C. A Surrogate Method for Comparison Analysis of Salivary Concentrations of Xylitol-Containing Products. BMC Oral Health 2008, 8:5.
  7. Ly, K.A., Milgrom, P., Roberts, M.C., Yamaguchi, D.K., Rothen, M., Mueller, G. Linear Response of Mutans Streptococci to Increasing Frequency of Xylitol Chewing Gum Use: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  BMC Oral Health 2006 Mar 24; 6:6.
  8. Milgrom, P., Ly, K.A., Roberts, M.C., Rothen, M., Mueller, G., Yamaguchi, D.K.  Mutans Streptococci Dose Response to Xylitol Chewing Gum.  J Dent Res 2006; 85: 177-181.

Tracy Popowics

Dr. Popowics’ research investigates the biomechanics of dental and craniofacial tissues across multiple scales and tissue types. This work examines how biomechanical processes that occur at the macroscale, such as tooth loading during mastication, influence processes that occur at the nanoscale including cellular functions, and vice versa. Her pursuit of an understanding of load transmission within orofacial tissues on these two scales is critical to understanding the etiology of pathological conditions.

  1. DENTFN 523: Oral Histology and Embryology 1
  2. DENTFN 533: Oral Histology and Embryology 2
  1. Houg, K.P., Armijo, L., Major, P., Popowics, T., Dennison, C. and Romanyk,D. Experimental repeatability, sensitivity, and reproducibility of strain and force measurements during ex vivo tooth loading. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 2021; 120 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.104562.
  2. Al-Rekabi, Z., Fura, A.M., Juhlin, I., Yassin, A., Popowics, T.E. and Sniadecki, N.J. Hyaluronan-CD44 interactions mediate contractility and migration in periodontal ligament cells. Cell Adhes. Migr. 2019; 13(1): 138-150, 2019.
  3. Hudson D.M., Garibov, M., Dixon, D.R., Popowics T.E. and Eyre, D.R. Distinct post- translational features of type I collagen are conserved in mouse and human periodontal ligament. Periodont. Res. 2017; 52:1042– 1049.
  4. Popowics, T.E., Yeh, K.D., Rafferty, K., and Herring, S.W.: Functional cues in the development of osseous tooth support in the pig, Sus scrofa. Biomech. 42(12): 1961-6, 2009.
  5. Popowics, T.E., and Herring, S.W.: Load transmission in the nasofrontal suture of the pig, Sus scrofa. J. Biomech. 40(4): 837-44, 2007.

Christy McKinney


Christy McKinney, PhD, MPH is an Associate Professor in Craniofacial Medicine, Pediatrics in the School of Medicine and an Adjunct Associate Professor in Oral Health Sciences, School of Dentistry. She is also an investigator in Seattle Children’s Research Institute’s Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development, and in the Seattle Children’s Hospital Craniofacial Center. She received her PhD (2006) in epidemiology from the University of Washington.

Dr. McKinney’s research interests are focused on the intersection of craniofacial, oral, and nutritional health in young children, both locally and globally. She is the principal investigator of a R01 grant from NIDCR investigating the extent to which children are exposed to the chemical Bisphenol A (BPA) during dental treatment. She also spearheaded the development of the NIFTY™ cup –  an infant feeding cup for infants with breastfeeding difficulties (e.g. infants with oral clefts and preterm infants) in low resource settings – with a team of multidisciplinary experts from Seattle Children’s, the University of Washington, PATH, and Laerdal Global Health with clinical testing at Sri Ramachandra University, India.

Dr. McKinney is also the Director of the Summer Institute in Clinical Dental Research Methods at the University of Washington, School of Dentistry and Associate Director of the Institute of Translational Sciences (ITHS) KL2 Career Development program, which trains career development KL2 Scholars through weekly seminars and small group sessions.


  1. McKinney CM, Pisek A, Chowchuen B, Pisek A, DeRouen T, Muktabhant B, Yeung C, Pitiphat W. A case control study of nutritional and environmental factors and the risk of oral clefts. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 2016, Vol. 106, pp.624-632.
  2. McKinney CM, Glass R, Coffey P, Rue T, Cunningham M. Feeding neonates and young infants by cup: A systematic review of the literature. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2016, Vol. 20, No. 8, pp.1620-1633.
  3. McKinney CM, Rue T, Sathyanarayana S, Martin M, Seminario AL, DeRouen T.   Dental Sealants and Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations in Children in the 2003-2004 NHANES. Journal of the American Dental Association, 2014, Vol. 145, No. 7, pp.745-50.
  4. Nirunsittirat, A*, Pitiphat, W, McKinney CM, DeRouen, TA, Chansamak N, Angwaravong, O, Patcharanuchat P, Pimpak T. Breastfeeding duration and childhood caries: a cohort study. Caries Research, 2016, Vol 50, No. 5, pp. 498-507.
  5. Seattle Children’s Hospital 2015 Academic Report. Inquiry to Action. Low-Tech Fix to Deadly Issue. March 30, 2016.

Lloyd Mancl

His research interests are in statistical methods for dental research, with an emphasis on longitudinal and correlated data and applied research on caries, temporomandibular disorders, and periodontal disease. For over 15 years he has served as a biostatistician on numerous and varied research projects, including basic science and experimental studies, large observational and longitudinal studies, single and multi-center randomized clinical trials, and practice based research. Currently, he is the director of the Statistics & Data Coordinating Center for the Northwest Center to Reduced Oral Health Disparities, anda co-investigator in the Data & Coordinating Center for Northwest Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based Dentistry (NW-PRECEDENT).

  1. Richman JA, Huebner CE, Leggott PJ, Mouradian WE, Mancl LA. “Beyond word recognition: understanding pediatric oral health literacy.” Pediatric Dentistry, 2011; 33(5): 420-425. PMCID: In process
  2. Chen IC, Brudvik JS, Mancl LA, Rubenstein JE, Chitswe K, Raigrodski AJ. “Freedom of rotation of selected overdenture attachments: An in vitro study.”  Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 2011; 106(2): 78-86.
  3. Turner JA, Mancl L, Huggins HK, Sherman JJ, Lentz G, Leresche L. “Targeting temporomandibular disorder pain treatment to hormonal fluctuations: A randomized clinical trial.” Pain, 2011; 152(9): 2074-2084. PMCID: PMC3157596.
  4. Janssens KAM, Rosmalen JGM, Ormel J, Verhulst FC, Hunfeld JAM, Mancl LA, Oldehinkel AJ, LeResche L. “Pubertal status predicts back pain, overtiredness, and dizziness in American and Dutch adolescents.” Pediatrics, 2011; 128: 553-559. PMCID: PMC3164091
  5. Rothen M, Cunha-Cruz J, Mancl L, Leroux B, Davis BL, Coyne J, Gillette J, Berg J. “Inter-examiner reliability of salivary diagnostic tests in a practice-based research network.” The Journal of Dental Hygiene, 2011; 85(2): 143-150. PMCID: In process
  6. Castillo JL, Rivera S, Aparicio T, Lazo R, Aw TC, Mancl L, Milgrom P. “The short-term effects of diammine silver on tooth sensitivity: a randomized controlled trial.” Journal of Dental Research, 2011; 90(2): 203-208.
  7. Milgrom P, Ly KA, Tut OK, Mancl L, Roberts M, Briand K, Gancio MJ. “Xylitol pediatric topical oral syrup to prevent dental caries: a double-blind randomized clinical trial of efficacy.”  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2009;163(7):601-7. (IADR Aubrey Sheiham Award for Distinguished Research in Dental Public Health Sciences, 2010). PMCID: PMC2722805
  8. LeResche, L., Mancl, L.A., Drangsholt, M.T., Huang, G. “Predictors of onset of facial pain and temporomandibular disorders in early adolescents.” Pain, 129, 269-278, 2007.  PMCID: PMC1979093  (IADR Aubrey Sheiham Award for Distinguished Research in Dental Public Health Sciences, 2008)
  9. DeRouen T.A., Hujoel P., Leroux B., Mancl L., Sherman J., Hilton T., Berg J., Ferracance J. for the Northwest Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based Dentistry (PRECEDENT). “Preparing practicing dentists to engage in practice-based research.” Journal of the American Dental Association, 139, 339-345, 2008.
  10. Leroux, B.G., Mancl, L.A., DeRouen, T.A. “Group sequential testing in dental clinical trials with longitudinal data on multiple outcome variables.” Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 14, 591-602 2005. Mancl L.A., Hujoel P.P., DeRouen T.A. “Efficiency issues among statistical methods for demonstrating efficacy of caries prevention – site versus subject.” Journal of Dental Research, 83 (Special Issue C), C95-C98, 2004.
  11. Dworkin, S.F., Huggins, K.H., Wilson, L., Mancl, L., Turner, J., Massoth, D., LeResche, L, Truelove, E. “A randomized clinical trial using research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders – Axis II to target clinic cases for a tailored self-care TMD treatment program.” Journal of Orofacial Pain, 16, 48-63. (Giddon Award for Distinguished Research in the Behavioral Sciences. Awarded by the Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group of the International Association of Dental Research, 2003.)
  12. Mancl, L.A., DeRouen, T.A. “A covariance estimator for GEE with improved small sample properties.”  Biometrics, 57, 126-134, 2001.
  13. Mancl, L.A., Leroux, B.G., DeRouen, T.A. “Between-subject and within-subject statistical information in dental research.” Journal of Dental Research, 79, 1778-1781, 2000.
  14. Milgrom, P., Mancl, L., King, B., Weinstein, P., Wells, N., Jeffcott, E. “An explanatory model of the dental care utilization of low income children.” Medical Care, 36, 554-566 1998. (Giddon Award for Distinguished Research in the Behavioral Sciences. Awarded by the Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group of the International Association of Dental Research, 1999.)
  15. Mancl, L.A., Leroux, B.G. “Efficiency of regression estimates for clustered data.” Biometrics, 52,500-511, 1996.

Brian Leroux

Dr. Brian Leroux is a Professor in the Department of Oral Health Sciences with a joint appointment in the Department of Biostatistics. He received his PhD in Statistics from The University of British Columbia in 1989 and has been at the University of Washington since 1991. He is currently the director of the Data Coordinating Center for Northwest PRECEDENT, a practice-based dental research network.

Dr. Leroux’s main research interest is in statistical methods for correlated data with applications to dental research and other fields. In addition to his work on Northwest PRECEDENT he collaborates with Seattle Children’s Hospital investigators on studies on craniofacial anomalies and is a Biostatistician and Associate Director of the data coordinating center for the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium which conducts clinical trials in emergency medicine.
  1. Collett BR, Speltz ML, Cloonan YK, Leroux BG, Kelly JP, Werler MM: Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with hemifacial microsomia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 165(2):134-140, Feb, 2011.
  2. Rothen M, Cunha-Cruz J, Mancl L, Leroux B, Davis BL, Coyne J, Gillette J, Berg J: Inter-examiner reliability of salivary diagnostic tests in a practice-based network. J Dental Hygiene 85(2):143-150, Spring, 2011.
  3. Barasch A, Cunha-Cruz J, Curro FA, Hujoel P, Sung AH, Vena D, Voinea-Griffin AE, for the CONDOR Collaborative Group (Beadnell S, Craig RG, DeRouen T, Desaranayake A, Gilbert A, Gilbert GH, Goldberg K, Hauley R, Hashimoto M, Holmes J, Latzke B, Leroux B, Lindblad A, Richman J, Safford M, Ship J, Thompson VP, Williams OD, Yin W): Risk factors for osteonecrosis of the jaws: a dental practice-based research network case-control study. J Dent Res 90(4):439-444,  2011.
  4. Dufton LM, Speltz ML, Kelly JP, Leroux B, Collett BR, Werler MM: Psychosocial outcomes in children with hemifacial microsomia. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 36(7):794-805, Aug, 2011.
  5. Stiell IG, Nichol G, Leroux BG, Rea TD, Ornato JP, Powell J, Christenson J, Callaway CW, Kudenchuk PJ, Aufderheide TP, Idris AH, Daya MR, Wang HE, Morrison LJ, Davis D, Andrusiek D, Stephens S, Cheskes S, Schmicker RH, Fowler R, Vaillancourt C, Hostler D, Zive D, Pirrallo RG, Vilke GM, Sopko G, Weisfeldt M, and the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortiurm (ROC) Investigators: Early versus later rhythm analysis in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. New Eng J Med 365(9):787-797, Sept 1, 2011.
  6. Aufderheide TP, Nichol G, Rea TD, Brown SP, Leroux BG, Pepe PE, Kudenchuk PJ, Christenson J, Daya MR, Dorian P, Callaway CW, Idris AH, Andrusiek D, Nichol G, Stephens SW, Hostler D, Davis DP, Dunford JV, Pirrallo RG, Stiell IG, Clement CM, Craig A, Van Ottingham L, Schmidt TA, Wang HE, Weisfeldt ML, Ornato JP, Sopko G, and the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortiurm (ROC) Investigators: A trial of an impedance threshold device in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. New Eng J Med 365(9):798-806, Sept 1, 2011.
  7. Huang Y, Leroux BG: Informative cluster sizes and weighted generalized estimating equations. Biometrics 67(3):843-851, Sep, 2011.
  8. Torres SR, Chen CSK, Leroux BG, Lee PP, Hollender LG, Schubert MM: Fractal dimension evaluation of cone beam computed tomography in patients with bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, 40(8):501-505, Dec, 2011.
  9. Flemmig TF, Arushanov D, Daubert D, Rothen M, Mueller G, Leroux BG: Randomized controlled trial assessing harm and efficacy of glycine powder air polishing in deep periodontal pockets. Journal of Periodontology, In Press, 2011.

Susanne Kölare Jeffrey


Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Release of regulatory proteins into saliva during normal physiological conditions, as well as when glands are compromised and salivary gland secretion is affected. Methodology: Gel electrophoresis, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence and confocal microscopy, in situ hybridization.


  1. Zhang W, Efanov A, Yang S-N, Fried G, Kölare S, Brown H, Zaitsev S, Berggren P-O, Meister B (2000) Munc-18 associates with syntaxin and serves as a negative regulator of exocytosis in the pancreatic b-cell. J Biol Chem 275(52):41521-41527.
  2. Sundström E, Kölare S, Souverbie F, Samuelsson E B, Pschera H, Lunell N O, Seiger Å (1993) Chemical differentiation of human bulbospinal monoaminergic neurons during the first trimester. Dev Brain Res, 75(1):1 – 12.
  3. Larsson S, Hultgård-Nilsson A, Kölare S, Luthman J, Sejersen T, Aperia A (1991) Serum factors induce c-fos expression and rapid cell proliferation in adolescent but not in infant rat proximal tubular cells. Pediatr Res 29:263-267.
  4. Kölare S (1989) Studies on thymocyte subpopulations in guinea pigs, with special reference to proliferation and differentiation. Ph.D. thesis, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.

Philippe P. Hujoel


Education:  The Free University of Brussels (dental degree), the University of Washington (specialty training in periodontics and a doctoral degree in epidemiology), and the University of Michigan (a master of science in biostatistics).

Service: Clinical practice limited to periodontics

  • Nutrition  with a focus on low carbohydrate diets
  • The harmful effects of diagnostic radiation
  • Evidence-Based Methodology and Applications
  • DPHS 535
  • DPHS 569
  1. Hujoel PP.  Vitamin D and Dental Caries:  Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (2012) Nutrition Reviews. In press.
  2. Hujoel PP, Becker W, and  Becker B: Monitoring Failure Rates of Commercial Implant Brands; Substantial Equivalence in Question? (2012) Clinical Oral Implants Research.
  3. Hujoel P, Zina LG, Cunha-Cruz J, Lopez R. Historical perspectives on theories of periodontal disease etiology. Periodontol 2000. Feb 2012;58(1):153-160.
  4. Rethman MP, Beltran-Aguilar ED, Billings RJ, et al. Nonfluoride caries-preventive agents: executive summary of evidence-based clinical recommendations. J Am Dent Assoc. Sep 2011;142(9):1065-1071.
  5. Hujoel PP, Stott-Miller M. Retinal and gingival hemorrhaging and chronic hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care. Jan 2011;34(1):181-183.
  6. Hujoel P. Dietary carbohydrates and dental-systemic diseases. J Dent Res. Jun 2009;88(6):490-502.

David Grembowski

Research Interests

Dr. Grembowski teaches social determinants of population health and health program evaluation, and his evaluation interests address prevention and the performance of health care systems. His studies have examined efforts to improve quality by increasing access to care in integrated delivery systems; managed care and physician referrals; managed care and patient-physician relationships; cost-effectiveness of preventive services for older adults; fluoridation effects on oral health and dental demand; financial incentives and dentist adoption of preventive technologies; effects of dental insurance on dental demand, and the link between mother and child access to dental care. His research interests include the design and performance of health care systems; prevention; technology diffusion. His methodology interests are program evaluation and survey research.


  1. Lyles CR, Karter AJ, Young BA, Spigner C, Grembowski D, Schillinger D, Adler N. Patient-Reported Racial/Ethnic Healthcare Provider Discrimination and Medication Intensification in the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE). J Gen Intern Med. 2011 May 6. [Epub ahead of print]  PMID: 21547610 PubMed
  2. Bekemeier B, Grembowski D, Yang YR, Herting JR. Local Public Health Delivery of Maternal Child Health Services: Are Specific Activities Associated with Reductions in Black-White Mortality Disparities? Matern Child Health J. 2011 Apr 20. [Epub ahead of print]  PMID: 21505777 PubMed
  3. Grembowski D, Bekemeier B, Conrad D, Kreuter W. Are local health department expenditures related to racial disparities in mortality? Soc Sci Med. 2010 Dec;71(12):2057-65. Epub 2010 Sep 29.  PMID: 21050631 PubMed
  4. Grembowski D, Spiekerman C, Milgrom P. Linking mother access to dental care and child oral health. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2009 Oct;37(5):381-90. Epub 2009 Jul 22.  PMID: 19681985 PubMed
  5. Grembowski D, Spiekerman C, Milgrom P. Racial and ethnic differences in a regular source of dental care and the oral health, behaviors, beliefs and services of low-income mothers. Community Dent Health. 2009 Jun;26(2):69-76.  PMID: 19626737 PubMed

Susan E. Coldwell

Susan Coldwell earned a BA in psychology from Duke University in 1989 and received an MA (1990) and PhD (1994) in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania and the Monell Chemical Senses Center.
Developmental and physiological influences on taste preference and perception. Psychophysical measurement of pain, anxiety, and taste.
  1. Desai H, Smutzer G, Coldwell SE, and Griffith JW.  Validation of Edible Taste Strips for Identifying PROP Taste Recognition Thresholds, The Laryngoscope, June, 121(6): 1177-1183, 2011.
  2. Coolidge T, Hillstead MB, Farjo N, Weinstein P, and Coldwell SE.  Additional Psychometric Data for the Spanish Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, and Psychometric Data for a Spanish Version of the Revised Dental Beliefs Survey, BioMed Central Oral Health, 10:12, 2010.
  3. Milgrom P, Weinstein P, and Coldwell SE.  “Malnutrition as an Etiological Factor in Dental Caries Disparity” pp. 381-395, in M. Wilson, ed. Food Constituents and Oral Health: Current Status and Future Prospects, Woodhead Publishing Ltd., 2009.
  4. Mobley C, Marshall TA, Milgrom P, and Coldwell SE.  The Contribution of Dietary Factors to Dental Caries and Disparities in Caries, Academic Pediatrics, 9(6), pp. 410-414, 2009.
  5. Coldwell SE, Oswald TK, and Reed DR.  A Marker of Growth Differs between Adolescents with High versus Low Sugar Preference, Physiology and Behavior, 96, 574-580, 2009.

Whasun “Sun” Oh Chung

  • Gingival innate immunity
  • Titanate-metal complexes as novel antimicrobials in dentistry (US Patent registered in 2013)
  • Epigenetic regulations in periodontal health and disease
  • Biological effects of dental metal alloys in oral tissues
  • Role of T2R38 taste receptor in oral immunity
  1. Yin, L., and W.O. Chung.  2011.  Epigenetic regulation of gingival innate immune responses to oral bacteria.  Mucosal Immunology, 4(4):409-419.
  2. Chung, W.O., J. Wataha, D. Hobbs, J. An, J. Wong, C. Park, M. Elvington and B. Rutherford.  2011.  Peroxotitanate and monosodium metal-titanate compounds as inhibitors of bacterial growth.  Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 97(3):348-354.
  3. Chung, W.O., H. Dommisch and M.G. Rohani, in M. Fournier (Ed.), Perspectives on pattern recognition.  Nova Science Publishers, 2011.
  4. Chung, W.O., J.C. Wataha and D.T. Hobbs, in A. Mendez-Vilas (Ed.), Science against microbial pathogens: communicating current research and technological advances.  Formatex, 2011.
  5. Kretschmar, S., L. Yin, F.A. Roberts, R. London, T.T. Flemmig, D. Arushanov, K. Kaiyala and W.O. Chung.  2012.  Protease inhibitor levels in periodontal health and disease.  Journal of Periodontal Research, 47(2):228-35.
  6. Li, L., J. C. Wataha, C. Cate, H. Zhang, D. DiJulio and W.O. Chung.  2012.  Ni(II) alters the NFkB signaling pathway in monocytic cells.  Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 100(4):934-939.
  7. Wataha, J.C., J.L. Drury and W.O. Chung.  2013.  Nickel alloys in the oral environment.  Expert Review of Medical Devices 10(4):519–539.
  8. Chung, W.O.  2013.  Therapeutic potentials of antimicrobial peptides.  Bioanalysis and Biomedicine.
  9. Chen, Y-W., J.L. Drury, W.O. Chung, D.T. Hobbs and J.C. Wataha.  2014.  Titanates and titanate-metal compounds in biological contexts.  Advances in Biomaterials.

Donald Chi


  • AB, Government, Cornell University
  • DDS, Dentistry, University of Washington
  • PhD, Health Services Research, University of Iowa


  • Access to health care services
  • Pediatric health disparities
  • Neighborhoods and oral health outcomes
  • Social determinants of oral health

Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications

  1. Banks J, Hill C, Chi DL. Plan type and opioid prescriptions for children in Medicaid. Medical Care. Accepted.
  2. Lee JN, Scott JM, Chi DL. (2020). Oral health behaviors and dental caries in low-income children with special health care needs. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. Nov;30(6):749-757. PMID: 32306501. PMCID: none
  3. Chi DL, Coldwell S, Mancl L, Hopkins S, Senturia K, Randall C, Orr E, Cruz S. (2019). Alaska Native Children Do Not Prefer Sugar-Sweetened Fruit Drinks Compared to Sugar-Free Fruit Drinks. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Jun;119(6):984-990. PMID:30987919. PMCID: PMC6536342
  4. Chi DL, Rosenfeld M, Mancl L, Chung WO, Presland R, Sarvas E, Rothen M, McNamara S, Genatossio A, Virella-Lowell I, Milla C, Alkhateeb A. (2018). Age-Related Heterogeneity in Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in Individuals with Cystic Fibrosis Ages 6-20 years: A Pilot Study. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. Nov;17(6):747-759. PMID: 30005828. PMCID: PMC6589399
  5. Chi DL, Momany E, Mancl L, Lindgren S, Zinner S, Steinman K. (2016). Dental homes for children with autism: a longitudinal analysis of Iowa Medicaid's I-Smile Program. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. May;50(5):609-15. PMID: 26514624. PMCID: PMC4838561

Thomas Benton Dodson

Northwest Center for Oral and Facial Surgery
For scheduling appointments and patient information


Dr. Thomas B. Dodson joined the Department in 2013 as Professor and Chair of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMS). A noted clinician, researcher, and teacher, Dr. Dodson is nationally and internationally recognized as a leader in the specialty.

Prior to joining the faculty at University of Washington, Dr. Dodson was Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Harvard School of Dental Medicine and an Attending Surgeon at Massachusetts General Hospital. He previously served as associate professor in the Department of Surgery at Emory School of Medicine in Atlanta.

A Diplomate of the American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dr. Dodson completed his specialty training in OMS at the University of California-San Francisco, where he also completed an NIH Fellowship in Clinical Epidemiology and a residency in Dental Public Health. An Oregon native and descendant of Oregon Trail pioneers, Dr. Dodson is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of the University of Oregon. He received his DMD, cum laude, from the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and MPH from the Harvard School of Public Health.

Dr. Dodson’s clinical practice is informed by his commitment to clinical investigation and evidence-based decision-making. An author of over 100 peer-reviewed publications, Dr. Dodson is Principal Investigator for an American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS)-sponsored nationwide study assessing outcomes on office-based anesthesia and third molar extractions. He was co-author of the AAOMS white papers on Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (BRONJ). His research established clinical markers to identify victims of domestic abuse, established guidelines for the care of patients with HIV, and evaluated mandatory seat-belt laws. He was twice awarded the Daniel M. Laskin award (2003 and 2010) for the best scientific paper published in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

Dr. Dodson practices the full scope of OMS, treating patients of all ages. His clinical interests include orthognathic surgery, trauma, nerve injury and facial reconstruction. He is a well-respected expert on management of third molars having been quoted in the Wall Street Journal, the Chicago Tribune and other national media outlets. He has substantial experience both clinically and in his research portfolio in dentoalveolar reconstruction and dental implants. He also served as a team doctor for the Boston Bruins, who honored him with the presentation of a Stanley Cup Ring in 2011.

Dr. Dodson has served as consultant to the Scientific Review Office of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, as Delegate for Clinical and Translational Sciences Applications to the Subcommittee on Training and Mentorship (NIH), and as Examiner for the American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. He is Vice Chair of the Board of Directors of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Foundation. He serves on the editorial board of Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology. In 2011, Dr. Dodson was appointed Associate Editor of the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

Dr. Dodson’s stalwart commitment to academic OMS has been the hallmark of his 25 year career. His national service is a counterpoint to the mentoring of residents and junior faculty, working at every level to ensure the sustainability of OMS for the next generation through clinical excellence, research, expanded funding, and community outreach.

Clinical and Research Interests

  • Orthognathic surgery
  • Maxillofacial Trauma
  • Pathology
  • Dentoalveolar and maxillofacial reconstructive surgery
  • Management of impacted teeth
  • Dental implants
  • Evidence-based management of third molar outcomes
  • BRONJ (bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the Jaws)
  • Care of medical compromised patients
  • Dental implants and implant survival
  • Reconstructive maxillofacial surgery
  • Intimate partner violence diagnosis in dental injuries
  • Evidence-based practice and outcomes assessment


Original Articles (Partial listing)

  1. Dodson TB, Kaban LB. California mandatory seatbelt law: The effect of recent legislation on motor vehicle accident-related maxillofacial injuries. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1988;46:875-80.
  2. Dodson TB, Perrott DH, Kaban LB, Gordon NC. A comparative analysis of rigid internal fixation versus intermaxillary fixation for the treatment of mandibular fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1990;48:362.
  3. Dodson TB, Kaban LB, Schmidt B, Longaker MT. Fetal cleft lip repair in rabbits: Part II: Post-natal facial growth after repair. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1991;49:603.
  4. Dodson TB, Barton JA, Kaban LB. Predictors of outcome in children hospitalized with maxillofacial infections: a linear logistic model. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1991;49:838.
  5. Dodson TB, Neuenschwander M, Bays RA. Intraoperative assessment of maxillary perfusion during LeFort I osteotomy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1994;52:827-31.
  6. Biederman GA, Dodson TB. Epidemiologic review of facial infections in hospitalized pediatric patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1994;52:1042-5.
  7. Dodson TB, Pfeffle RC. Cost-effectiveness analysis of open reduction/nonrigid fixation and open reduction/rigid fixation to treat mandibular fractures. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1995;80:5-12.
  8. Dodson TB. Demineralized bone grafts to reconstruct third molar extraction site defects. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1996;82: 241-247.
  9. Dodson TB, Bays RA, Neuenschwander MC. Maxillary perfusion during LeFort I osteotomy following ligation of descending palatine artery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1996;55: 51-55.
  10. Dodson TB, Bays RA, Pfeffle RC, Barrow D. Cranial bone graft to reconstruct the mandibular condyle in Macaca mulatta. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1997;55:260-267.
  11. Dodson TB. HIV status and the risk of post extraction complications. J Dental Res 1997;76:1644.
  12. Perciaccante V, Dodson TB, Ochs H. Head, neck and facial injuries as markers of domestic violence in women. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1999;57:760.
  13. Chuang S-K, Wei L-J, Douglass CW, Dodson TB. Risk factors for dental implant failure: A strategy for the analysis of clustered failure time observations. J Dent Res 2002;81:527-7.
  14. Kaban, LB, Troulis MJ, Ebb D, August M, Hornicek F, Dodson TB. Anti-angiogenic therapy with Interferon-alpha for giant cell lesions of the jaws. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2002;60:103.
  15. Perrott DH, Yuen J, Andresen R, Dodson TB. Office-based Ambulatory Anesthesia: An overview of the clinical practice of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the United States. J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  16. Halpern LR, Kaban LB, Dodson TB. Perioperative neurosensory changes associated with treatment of mandibular fractures. J Oral and Maxillofac Surgery 2004;62:576-581.
  17. Richardson D, Dodson TB. Risk of periodontal defects after third molar surgery: An exercise in evidence-based clinical decision-making. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 2005;100:133.
  18. Gentile MA, Chuang S-K, Dodson TB. 6 x 5.7 mm Implants: Survival estimates and risk factors for failure. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implant 2005;20:930.
  19. Halpern LR, Dodson TB. A predictive model to identify women with injuries related to intimate partner violence. JADA 2006;137:604-9. Cover story.
  20. Halpern LR, Dodson TB. Does prophylactic administration of systemic antibiotics prevent postoperative inflammatory complications after third molar surgery? J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007;65:175-85.
  21. Chuang S-K, Perrott DH, Susarla SM, Dodson TB. Age as a risk factor for third molar surgery complications. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 65:1685-92, 2007
  22. Chuang S-K, Susarla SM, Dodson TB. Delayed versus immediate loading of implants: Survival analysis and risk factors for dental implant failure. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 66:251-5, 2008.
  23. Human ET, Juvet LM, Nastri A, Denman WT, Kaban LB, Dodson TB. Changing patterns of hospital length of stay following orthognathic surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 66:492-7, 2008.
  24. Wessell JH, Dodson TB, Zavras A. Zoledronate and other risk factors associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw in cancer patients: a case-control study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 66:625-31, 2008.
  25. Markiewicz MR, Brady MF, Ding EL, Dodson TB. Corticosteroids reduce postoperative morbidity following third molar surgery: A meta-analysis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 66:1881-94, 2008.
  26. Chuang S-K, Perrott DH, Susarla SM, Dodson TB. Risk factors for inflammatory complications following third molar surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 66:2213-8, 2008.
  27. Halpern LR, Parry GA, Hayward G, Peak D, Dodson TB. A comparison of 2 protocols to detect intimate partner violence. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:1453-9, 2009.
  28. Perciaccante VM, Susarla SM, Dodson TB. Validation of a diagnostic protocol used to identify intimate partner violence in the emergency department setting. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 68:1537-42, 2010.
  29. Kinard BE. Dodson TB. Most patients with asymptomatic, disease-free third molar elect extraction over retention as their preferred treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 68:2935-42, 2010.
  30. Gordon PE, Lawler ME, Kaban LB, Dodson TB. Mandibular fracture severity and patient health status are associated with postoperative inflammatory complications. 69:2191-7, 2011.
  31. Kinard BE, Chuang S-K, August M, Dodson TB. How well do we manage the odontogenic keratocyst? J Oral Maxillofac Surg 71:1353-8, 2013.
  32. Mercer E, Norton T, Woo S, Treister N, Dodson TB, Solomon DH. Ninety-one osteoporosis patients affected with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: A case series. Calcif Tissue Int DOI 10.1007/s00223-013-9747-1, 2013.
  33. Susarla S, Dodson TB. Impacted wisdom teeth. Clinical Evidence 4:1302, 2010.

Mark Drangsholt

Dr. Drangsholt received his DDS degree from the University of Washington in 1984 and completed a general practice residency at Michael Reese Hospital and Medical Center in Chicago in 1985. He began a general dental practice in Kent, Washington, in 1985 where he continued to practice from half to full time until 1995. He returned to the University of Washington and earned his M.P.H. in Epidemiology in 1992, a certificate in Oral Medicine in 1995 and completed his PhD in Epidemiology in 2004. He was appointed as a tenure-track assistant professor in 2006 , was promoted to associate professor with tenure in 2009, and full professor in 2012. He was appointed Chair of the Department of Oral Medicine in 2010, and continues in that role. He served on the American Board of Oral Medicine from 2012 to 2021, serving in multiple roles including president. He received the Distinguished Alumni Award from the University of Washington School of Dentistry in 2019.
Dr. Drangsholt currently teaches in multiple medical/dental school and oral medicine graduate courses. He mentors Oral Medicine graduate students in various research projects. He has given over 150 presentations, including invited research presentations in Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom, Sweden, Thailand, and Australia, besides multiple universities across the US. He is the past president of the Neuroscience Section of the International Association for Dental Research, and past president of the University of Washington Dental Alumni Association.
Dr. Drangsholt provides patient care in the Oral Medicine Clinical Service department at the University of Washington, where his clinical practice is limited to the diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders, oral-facial pain, oral mucosal lesions, and other oral-facial diseases. He also provides care at the Center for Pain Relief, University of Washington Medical Center since 2011.
His current research projects include finding better ways to diagnose orofacial pains, investigating the causes of orofacial pain conditions, rethinking the classification of orofacial pains, and generally applying epidemiologic methods to major orofacial health problems. He has published over 90 peer-reviewed scientific articles, book chapters, reviews and letters to the editor.