UW School of Dentistry

Robert A. Cornell

Research Interests

Genetic underpinnings of orofacial cleft; Transcriptional regulatory networks governing cellular differentiation of superficial epithelia and melanocytes; Cell fate determination.


Fritzie Arce-McShane


Dr. Arce-McShane is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Oral Health Sciences. She received her Bachelor of Science in Physical Therapy from the University of the Philippines, Master of Arts in Motor Learning from Columbia University in New York, and PhD in Neuroscience from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel. She did her postdoctoral work at the University of Chicago and was a Research Assistant Professor prior to joining the School of Dentistry in November 2021.

Research Interests

Dr. Arce-McShane is a neuroscientist and her research focuses on the principles of cortical and biomechanical control of oral sensorimotor behavior (such as feeding, breathing and speech), and how these are affected by learning, aging, and disease. Her previous background as a physical therapist with strong concentrations in movement science, neurological and cognitive rehabilitation has given her a keen awareness of patients’ problems and needs. Her basic science research draws from her clinical experience and is aimed  towards innovative research that directly impacts the evaluation and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, sensorimotor disorders, restoration of sensory feedback in brain-machine interfaces, and age-related dementias.

Her lab uses a multidisciplinary approach to understand the interplay between sensation and movement using converging evidence from psychophysics, biomechanics, neurophysiology, and computational modeling. Her methods include recording neural activity from chronically-implanted microelectrode arrays in multiple regions of the cerebral cortex simultaneous with recording the movements of the tongue and the mandible using high-resolution biplanar radiography and applying computational models to understand the principles of sensorimotor control.

Research Lab website

Selected Publications

  1. Arce-McShane FI (2021) The association between age-related changes in oral neuromechanics and Alzheimer’s disease. Adv Geriatr Med Res 2021;3(2):e210011. https://doi.org/10.20900/agmr20210011
  2. Laurence-Chasen J, Manafzadeh AR, Hatsopoulos NG, Ross CF, Arce-McShane FI (2020) Integrating XMALab and DeepLabCut for high-throughput XROMM. Journal of Experimental Biology 2020 223: jeb226720 doi: 10.1242/jeb.226720
  3. Arce-McShane FI, Sessle BJ, Ram Y, Takahashi K, Balcer C, Ross CF, Hatsopoulos NG (2020) Multiple regions of primate orofacial sensorimotor cortex encode bite force and gape. bioRxiv doi:https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.16.252817
  4. Arce-McShane FI, Sessle BJ, Ross CF, Hatsopoulos NG (2018) Primary sensorimotor cortex exhibits complex dependencies of spike-field coherence on neuronal firing rates, field power, and behavior. Journal of Neurophysiology 120 (1):226-238
  5. Arce-McShane FI, Takahashi K, Ross CF, Sessle BJ, Hatsopoulos NG (2016) Primary motor and sensory cortical areas communicate via spatiotemporally coordinated networks at multiple frequencies. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences 113(18):5083-5088
  6. Arce-McShane F, Hatsopoulos NG, Lee JC, Ross CF, Sessle BJ (2014) Modulation dynamics in the orofacial sensorimotor cortex during motor skill acquisition. Journal of Neuroscience 34(17):5985-5997
  7. Arce F, Ross CF, Lee JC, Sessle BJ, Hatsopoulos NG (2013) Directional information from neuronal ensembles in the primate orofacial sensorimotor cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 110(6):1357-1369

Recent Conference Poster Presentations

  1. Sheridan L, Laurence-Chasen JD, Arce-McShane FI (2021). Sensory loss affects multi-region neural network dynamics in primate sensorimotor cortex. 2021 Society for Neuroscience Conference (accepted)
  2. Luckas J, Laurence-Chasen JD, Fereira III H, Arce-McShane FI (2021). Novel biomarkers in healthy aging: Tongue and jaw kinematics as a potential way to further explore Alzheimer’s-induced biological changes. 2021 Alzheimer’s Association International Conference
  3. Tang D, Simonoff A, Laurence-Chasen JD, Arce-McShane FI (2021) Decoding lingual-palatal contacts from population responses in primate orofacial sensorimotor cortex. Computational and Systems Neuroscience (Cosyne) 2021
  4. Tang D, Simonoff A, Laurence-Chasen JD, Sessle B, Ross C, Hatsopoulos NG, Arce-McShane FI (2021) Decoding lingual-palatal contacts from population responses in primate orofacial sensorimotor cortex. Society for Neuroscience Global Connectome
  5. Laurence-Chasen JD, Ross CF, Hatsopoulos NG, Arce-McShane F (2021) Decoding tongue position and shape from population responses in primate orofacial sensorimotor cortex. Society for Neuroscience Global Connectome
  6. Laurence-Chasen JD, Manafzadeh AR, Hatsopoulos NG, Ross CF, Arce-McShane F (2021) XROMM Tools for DeepLabCut: Bringing deep learning to XROMM marker tracking. Virtual Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology

Jonathan An


Dr. An received his Bachelor of Science in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology from the University of Washington. He completed a dual D.D.S (2015) and Ph.D (2019) from the University of Washington School of Dentistry. He is a UW Magnuson Scholar, ARCS Foundation Fellow, IADR/AADR Hatton Competition winner, and won the inaugural IADR Heraeus Award and ADA/Dentsply Sirona Research Award for Dual Degree Candidates.

Academic and Clinical Activities

Dr. An is currently an Assistant Professor of Oral Health Sciences and Faculty in the Healthy Aging and Longevity Institute. He also serves as the Assistant Graduate Program Director of Oral Health Sciences. Dr. An currently directs courses in the departments of Oral Health Sciences and the Department of Lab Medicine and Pathology.

Research Interests

Dr. An’s research interests lie at the intersection of Geroscience (aging biology) and Oral Biology. His primary research focuses on understand the basic biological mechanisms of aging in the context of oral health and disease.  His laboratory also evaluates and targets specific hallmarks of aging in the oral cavity to one day translate these discoveries to help extend the oral healthspan in humans.

Recent Publications

  1. Buranaphatthana, W.; Yavirach, A.;  Leaf, E. M.;  Scatena, M.;  Zhang, H.;  An, J. Y.; Giachelli, C. M., Engineered osteoclasts resorb necrotic alveolar bone in anti-RANKL antibody-treated mice. Bone 2021, 153, 116144.
  2. An JY, Kerns KA, Ouellette A, Robinson L, Morris HD, Kaczorowski C, Park SI, Mekvanich T, Kang A, McLean JS, Cox TC, Kaeberlein M. Rapamycin rejuvenates oral health in aging mice. Elife. 2020 Apr 28;9. PMID: 32342860; PMCID: PMC7220376.
  3. An JY, Darveau R, Kaeberlein M. Oral health in geroscience: animal models and the aging oral cavity. Geroscience. 2018 Feb;40(1):1-10. PMID: 29282653; PMCID: PMC5832657.
  4. An JY, Quarles EK, Mekvanich S, Kang A, Liu A, Santos D, Miller RA, Rabinovitch PS, Cox TC, Kaeberlein M. Rapamycin treatment attenuates age-associated periodontitis in mice. Geroscience. 2017 Aug;39(4):457-463. PMID: 28889220; PMCID: PMC5636779.
  5. Ito TK, Lu C, Khan J, Nguyen Q, Huang HZ, Kim D, Phillips J, Tan J, Lee Y, Nguyen T, Khessib S, Lim N, Mekvanich S, Oh J, Pineda VV, Wang W, Bitto A, An JY, Morton JF, Setou M, Ladiges WC, Kaeberlein M. Hepatic S6K1 Partially Regulates Lifespan of Mice with Mitochondrial Complex I Deficiency. Front Genet. 2017;8:113 PMID: 28919908; PMCID: PMC5585733.
  6. Chung WO, Wataha JC, Hobbs DT, An J, Wong JJ, Park CH, Dogan S, Elvington MC, Rutherford RB. Peroxotitanate- and monosodium metal-titanate compounds as inhibitors of bacterial growth. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2011 Jun 1;97(3):348-54. PubMed PMID: 21472975.
  7. Rohani MG, DiJulio DH, An JY, Hacker BM, Dale BA, Chung WO. PAR1- and PAR2-induced innate immune markers are negatively regulated by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in oral keratinocytes. BMC Immunol. 2010 Oct 28;11:53. PMID: 21029417; PMCID: PMC2988058.
  8. Chung WO, An JY, Yin L, Hacker BM, Rohani MG, Dommisch H, DiJulio DH. Interplay of protease-activated receptors and NOD pattern recognition receptors in epithelial innate immune responses to bacteria. Immunol Lett. 2010 Jul 8;131(2):113-9. PubMed PMID: 20219537; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2885501.
  9. Yin L, Swanson B, An J, Hacker BM, Silverman GA, Dale BA, Chung WO. Differential effects of periopathogens on host protease inhibitors SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2. J Oral Microbiol. 2010 May 4;2.PMID: 21523231; PMCID: PMC3084571.

Cameron L. Randall


I am an Acting Assistant Professor in the Department of Oral Health Sciences at the University of Washington School of Dentistry. My program of research applies behavioral science, especially health psychology, to dentistry and dental public health. The overall goals of this work are to improve dental care delivery and oral health outcomes, with a major aim to reduce health disparities.

I have specific research interests in: (1) psychological processes involved in, and social/behavioral interventions for, dental/orofacial pain, dental treatment-seeking behavior, and oral health behavior; (2) the etiology, prevention, and amelioration of dental treatment avoidance, particularly as a function of dental care-related fear/anxiety; and (3) the dissemination of knowledge on these topics to healthcare professionals, and the implementation of evidence-based practice in the oral health arena. As a clinical psychologist, I treat patients in the oral medicine clinic at the University of Washington School of Dentistry.

I also engage in teaching—primarily for dental and medical students/residents—on topics such as behavioral science, clinical health psychology, health behavior change, healthcare-related fear/anxiety, pain management, pediatric behavior guidance, integrated care, Motivational Interviewing, interprofessional and patient-provider communication, and cultural humility.

My research applies social and behavioral science to dentistry. To guide my work, I draw on training in experimental psychopathology, behavioral genetics, clinical health psychology, dissemination and implementation science, public health, and translational science. Three specific areas of scientific inquiry currently characterize my multilevel, transdisciplinary program of research.

  1. Randall, C. L. (2018). On motivational interviewing for oral health promotion: State of the field and future directions. JDR Clinical and Translational Research, 3(4), 376-377. [PDF]
  2. Ford, C., Manegold, E., Randall, C. L., Aballay, A., & Duncan, C. L. (in press). Assessing the feasibility of implementing low-cost virtual reality therapy during routine burn care. Burns, 44(4), 886-895. [PDF]
  3. McNeil, D. W., Kennedy, S. G., Randall, C. L., Addicks, S. H., Wright, C. D., Hursey, K. G., & Vaglienti, R. (2018). The Fear of Pain Questionnaire-9: Brief assessment of fear of pain. European Journal of Pain, 22(1), 39-48. [PDF]
  4. McNeil, D. W., Addicks, S. H., & Randall, C. L. (2017). Motivational interviewing for health behavior change. Oxford Handbooks Online. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935291.013.21 [PDF]
  5. Mittinty, M. M., Brennan, D. S., Randall, C. L., McNeil, D. W., Mittinty, M. N., & Jamieson, L. (2017). Influence of fear of pain and coping strategies on health-related quality of life and patient-anticipated outcomes in patients with chronic pain: Cross-sectional study protocol. JMIR Research Protocols, 6(9), e176. [PDF]
  6. Randall, C. L., & McNeil, D. W. (2017). Motivational interviewing as an adjunct to cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders: A critical review of the literature. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 24(3), 296-31. [PDF]
  7. Addicks, S. H., McNeil, D. W., Randall, C. L., Goddard, A., Romito, L., Sirbu, C., Kaushal, G., Metzger, A., & Weaver, B. D. (2017). Dental care-related fear and anxiety: Distress tolerance as a possible mechanism. JDR Clinical & Translational Research, 2(3), 304-311. [PDF]
  8. Randall, C. L., Wright, C. D., Chernus, J., McNeil, D. W., Feingold, E., Crout, R. J., Neiswanger, K., Weyant, R. J., Shafer, J.R., & Marazita, M. L. A preliminary genome-wide association study of pain-related fear: Implications for orofacial pain. Pain Research and Management, 2017, 7375468. [PDF]
  9. Randall, C. L., Shaffer, J. R., McNeil, D. W., Crout, R. J., Weyant, R. J., & Marazita, M. L. (2017). Toward a genetic understanding of dental fear: Evidence of heritability. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 45(1), 66-73. [PDF]
  10. Randall, C. L., McNeil, D. W., Shaffer, J. R., Crout, R. J., Weyant, R. J., & Marazita, M. L. (2016). Fear of pain mediates the association between MC1R genotype and dental fear. Journal of Dental Research, 95(10), 1132-1137. [PDF]
  11. McNeil, D. W., Hayes, S. E., Randall, C. L., Polk, D. E., Neiswanger, K., Shaffer, J. R., Weyant, R. J., Foxman, B., Kao, E., Crout, R. J., Chapman, S., Brown, L. J., Maurer, J. L., & Marazita, M. L. (2016). Depression and a Rural Environment are Associated with Poor Oral Health among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia. Behavior Modification, 40(2), 325-340. [PDF]
  12. Bamonti, P. M., Keelan, C. M., Larson, N., Mentrikoski, J. M., Randall, C. L., Sly, S. K., Travers, R. M., & McNeil, D. W. (2014). Promoting ethical behavior by cultivating a culture of self-care during graduate training: A call to action. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 8(4), 253-260[PDF]
  13. Randall, C. L., Shulman, G. P., & McNeil, D. W. (2014). Gagging during dental treatment: Associations with dental care-related fear, fear of pain, and beliefs about treatment. Journal of the American Dental Association, 145, 452-458. [PDF]
  14. Randall, C. L., McNeil, D. W., Crout, R. J., Weyant, R. J., & Marazita, M. L. (2013). Collecting psychosocial self-report data in oral-health research: Impact of literacy level and computerized administration. Social Science and Dentistry, 2(2), 80-87. [PDF]

Trilby Coolidge


  • B.A. (High Honors), Philosophy and Psychology, University of California
  • Ph.D., Psychology, (minor in Quantitative Studies), University of Washington
  • Psychology Residency, Northwestern University Medical School

Research Interests

  • Decision-making
  • Behavior Change
  • Psychometrics
  • Dental Fear

Academic Activities

  • Co-Director, Dentex 471 (Ethics)
  • Member, Task Force on Professionalism and Ethics

Clinical Activities

  • Psychological services, Dental Fears Research Clinic


  1. Coolidge T, Irwin SP, Leyster KA, Milgrom P. (in press). Determinants of receiving intravenous sedation in a sample of dentally-fearful patients in the USA. SAAD Digest.
  2. Coolidge T, Skaret E, Heima M, Johnson EK, Hillstead MB, Farjo N, Asmyhr A, Weinstein P. (2011). Thinking About Going to the Dentist: A Contemplation Ladder to assess dentally-avoidant individuals’ readiness to go to a dentist. BMC Oral Health, 11:4.
  3. Arapostathis KN, Dabarakis NN, Coolidge T, Tsirlis A, Kotsanos N. (2010). Comparison of acceptance, preference and efficacy between jet injection INJEX and local infiltration anesthesia in 6-11 year old dental patients. Anesthesia Progress, 57, 3-12.
  4. Coolidge T, Hillstead MB, Farjo N, Weinstein P, Coldwell SE. (2010). Additional psychometric data for the Spanish Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, and psychometric data for a Spanish version of the Revised Dental Beliefs Survey. BMC Oral Health,10:12.
  5. Coolidge T, Heima M, Johnson EK, Weinstein P. (2009). The Dental Neglect Scale in Adolescents.BMC Oral Health 9:2.
  6. Weinstein P, Coolidge T, Raff CA, Riedy CA. (2009). Recruiting rural dentally-avoidant adolescents into an intervention study. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry, 10, 233-236.
  7. Kotsanos N, Coolidge T, Velonis D, Arapostathis KN. (2009). A form of ‘parental presence/absence’ (PPA) technique for the child patient with dental behaviour management problems. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry, 10, 90-92.
  8. Coolidge T, Heaton LJ, Milgrom P. (2009). The challenge of sedation with adolescents: Case studies and clinical recommendations. SAAD Digest, 25, 29-36.
  9. Heaton LJ, Coolidge T, Weinstein P. (2009). The Problem of Fear in Dentistry. In P. Milgrom P, Weinstein P, Heaton LJ., Treating Fearful Dental Patients: A Patient Management Handbook (3rd Ed.). Seattle: Dental Behavioral Resources, 5-34.
  10. Arapostathis KN, Coolidge T, Emmanouil D, Kotsanos N. (2008). Reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule – Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS). International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 18, 374-379.
  11. Coolidge T, Chambers MA, Garcia LJ, Heaton LJ, Coldwell SE. (2008). Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures. BMC Oral Health, 8: 15.
  12. Coolidge T, Arapostathis KN, Emmanouil D, Dabarakis N, Patrikiou A, Economides N, Kotsanos N. (2008). Psychometric properties of the Greek versions of the Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) and the Dental Fear Survey (DFS). BMC Oral Health 8:29.
  13. Pickrell JE, Heima M, Weinstein P, Coolidge T, Coldwell SE, Skaret E, Castillo J& Milgrom P. (2007) Using memory restructuring strategy to enhance dental behavior. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 17, 439-448.
  14. Coolidge T, Heima M, Coldwell SE, Weinstein P, Logan HL & Milgrom P. (2005). Reliability and validity of the Revised Iowa Dental Control Index in a Non-Clinical Sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 773-783.
  15. Coolidge T, Heima M, Coldwell SE, Weinstein P & Milgrom P. (2005). Psychometric properties of the Revised Dental Beliefs Survey. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 33, 289-297.
  16. Coolidge T, Heima M, Heaton LJ, Nakai Y, Höskuldsson Ó,  Smith TA, Weinstein P & Milgrom P. (2005). The Child Dental Control Assessment (CDCA) in youth: Reliability, validity and cross-cultural differences. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 6, 35-43.
  17. Nakai Y, Hirakawa T, Milgrom P, Coolidge T, Heima M, Mori Y, Ishihara C, Yakushiji N, Yoshida T & Shimono T. (2005). The Children’s Fear Survey Schedule – Dental Subscale in Japan.Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 33, 196-204.
  18. Kotsanos N, Arhakis A, Coolidge T.  (2005). Parental presence vs. absence in the operatory: A technique to manage the uncooperative child dental patient. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 6, 144-148.

Jing Zhang

Research Interests

Parkinson’s disease (PD), the most common serious movement disorder afflicting millions of Americans, is diagnosed when patients present with cardinal parkinsonian signs (bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and postural instability as depicted in the diagram on the left) and show a favorable responsiveness to levodopa or dopamine (DA) agonists.

Pathological hallmarks of PD are loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) with resultant depletion of DA and the presence of Lewy bodies in the remaining neurons (indicated by an arrow in the photo micrograph). Despite decades of extensive research, there is currently still no cure for the disease, largely because its pathogenesis has not been fully understood yet. In addition, there are quite a few other movement disorders that mimic PD clinically including response to levodopa and DA agonists, making an accurate diagnosis of PD difficult sometimes even in the best hands. Finally, the natural course of PD varies substantially, with most patients developing first mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and then dementia as the disease progresses.

1) understand the molecular mechanisms of Parkinson’s disease development
2) understand the molecular mechanisms of Parkinson’s disease progression
3) explore unique biomarkers for diagnosing Parkinson’s disease and monitoring its progression

Research Laboratory


  1. Montine, T. Shi, M, .and Zhang J (2010). Reduction in CSF amyloid b42 without a corresponding increase in tau species is commonly found in patients with Parkinson’s disease and cognitive impairment or dementia. Mov Disord In press (2010).
  2. Mata, I., Zhang, j and Zabeitian C, A SNCA Variant Associated with Parkinson’s Disease and Plasma α-Synuclein Level. Arch Neurol In press (2010).
  3. Shi M, Zabetian CP, Hancock AM, Ginghina C, Hong Z, Yearout D, Chung KA, Quinn JF, Peskind ER, Galasko D, Jankovic J, Leverenz JB, and Zhang J (2010). Significance and confounders of peripheral DJ-1 and alpha-synuclein in Parkinson’s disease. Neurosci Lett. 480:78–82, 2010.
  4. Liu J, Shi M, Hong Z, Zhang J, Bradner J, Quinn T, Beyer RP, Mcgeer PL, Chen S, and Zhang J(2010). Identification of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha as a mediator of neurotoxicity induced by alpha-synuclein. Proteomics. 10(11):2138-50, 2010.
  5. Rostomily RC, Born DE, Beyer RP, Jin J, Alvord EC Jr, Mikheev, AM, Matthews RT, Pan C, Khorasani L, Sonnen JA, Montine TJ, Shi M, and Zhang J (2010). Quantitative proteomic analysis of oligodendrogliomas with and without 1p/19q deletion. J Proteome Res. 7;9(5):2610-8, 2010.
  6. Caudle WM, Bammler TK, Lin Y, Pan S, and Zhang J (2010). Using ‘omics’ to define pathogenesis and biomarkers of Parkinson’s disease. Expert Rev Neurother, 10(6):925-42, 2010.
  7. Hong Z, Shi M, Chung KA, Quinn JF, Peskind ER, Galasko D, Jankovic J, Zabetian CP, Leverenz JB, Baird G, Montine TJ, Hancock AM, Hwang H, Pan C, Bradner J, Kang UJ, Jensen PH, and Zhang J(2010). DJ-1 and synuclein as biomarkers of Parkinson’s disease, Brain, 133:713-26, 2010.
  8. Oh JH, Pan S, Zhang J, Gao J, MSQ: A tool for quantification of proteomics data generated by LC-MALDI TOF/TOF based targeted quantitative proteomics platform. Rapid Comm Mass Spec, 24(4):403-8, 2010.
  9. Hwang H, Zhang JP, Chung KA, Leverenz JB, Zabetian CP, Peskind ER, Jankovic J, Su Z, Hancock AM, Pan C, Montine TJ, Pan S, Nutt J, Albin R, Gearing M, Beyer RP, Shi M, and Zhang J (2010). Glycoproteomics in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Mass Spec Reviews, 29(1):79-125.
  10. Caudle WM, Zhang J (2009). Glutamate, excitotoxicity, and programmed cell death in Parkinson disease. Exp Neurol. 220:230-3, 2009.
  11. Shi M, Bradner J, Bammler TK, Eaton DL, Zhang JP, Ye ZC, Wilson AM, Montine TJ, Pan C andZhang J (2009). Identification of synaptosomal glutathione S-transferase Pi as a key protein in Parkinson disease progression, Am J Pathol. 2009 Jun 4.
  12. Caudle WM, Kitsou E, Li J, Bradner J, Zhang J (2009). A role for a novel protein, nucleolin, in Parkinson’s disease, Neurosci Lett. 2009 Jul 31;459(1):11-5. Epub 2009 May 4.
  13. Liu J, Zhang JP, Shi M, Quinn T, Bradner J, Beyer R, Chen S, Zhang J (2009). Rab11a and HSP90 regulate recycling of extracellular alpha-synuclein. J Neurosci. 4;29(5):1480-5.
  14. Pan S, Aebersold R, Chen R, Rush J, Goodlett DR, McIntosh MW, Zhang J, Brentnall TA (2009), Mass spectrometry based targeted protein quantification: methods and applications, J. Proteome Res. 6;8(2):787-797.

Paul Yager

Paul Yager, a native of Manhattan, received his A.B. in Biochemistry from Princeton in 1975, and a Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Oregon in Eugene in 1980. He specialized in vibrational spectroscopy of biomolecules. He was a National Research Council Resident Research Associate at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC from 1980 to 1982, joining the staff of NRL as a Research Chemist in 1982. At NRL he focused on lipid microstructures and the development of biosensor technologies. He joined the faculty of the Department of Bioengineering at the University of Washington in Seattle in 1987 as Associate Professor.

Initial projects included work on biosensors, the structure of silk, and use of lipid microstructures for controlled release of pharmaceuticals. He was promoted to Professor in 1995, becoming Vice Chair in 2001. Since 1992, Yager has focused on development of microfluidic devices for the manipulation of biological fluids and the measurement of concentrations of analytes of biological relevance. Support to his laboratory and collaborators has been received from NSF, NIH, DARPA, The Whitaker Foundation, the government of Singapore, and private companies including MesoSystems, Senmed Medical Ventures and Hewlett Packard. The support from Senmed resulted in the creation of Micronics, Inc., a Redmond, WA-based company dedicated to microfluidic solutions for problems in the life sciences and medicine.

The primary goal of current work in his laboratory is decentralization of biomedical diagnostic testing in the developed and developing worlds through a program called Distributed Diagnosis and Home Healthcare. The specific aim is the development of microfluidic devices and systems for optical bioassays. Learn more about Paul Yager.

  1. Microcontact printed antibodies on gold surfaces: function, uniformity, and silicone contamination, Foley, J., Fu, E., Gamble, L. and Yager, P., Langmuir, 24(7):3628–3635 (2008)
  2. Experimental and model investigation of the time-dependent 2-dimensional distribution of binding in a herringbone microchannel , Foley, J.O., Mashadi-Hossein, A., Fu, E., Finlayson, B.A., and Yager, P., Lab on a Chip, 8(4): 557–564 (2008)
  3. Point-of-care diagnostics for global health. Yager , P., Domingo , G.J., and Gerdes, J., Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, 10: 107–144 (2008)
  4. A method for characterizing adsorption of flowing solutes to microfluidic device surfaces, Hawkins, K. R., Steedman, M. R., Baldwin, R. R., Fu, E., Ghosal, S., and Yager, P., Lab on a Chip, 7(2), 281–285 (2007)
  5. SPR imaging-based salivary diagnostics system for the detection of small molecule analytes, Fu, Elain, Chinowsky, T., Nelson, K., Johnston, K., Edwards, T., Helton, K., Grow, J., Miller, J. W., and Yager, P., Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1098: 335–344 (2007)
  6. Concentration gradient immunoassay I. a rapid immunoassay based on interdiffusion and surface binding in a microchannel, Nelson, K. E., Foley, J. O., and Yager, P., Analytical Chemistry, 79(10): 3542–3548 (2007)
  7. Concentration gradient immunoassay II. computational modeling for analysis and optimization, Foley, J. O., Nelson, K. E., Mashadi-Hossein, A., Finlayson, B.A., and Yager, P. Analytical Chemistry, 79(10): 3549–3553 (2007)
  8. Investigation of heterogeneous electrochemical processes using multi-stream laminar flow in a microchannel, Hasenbank, M. S., Fu, E., Nelson, J. B., Schwartz, D. T., and Yager, P., Lab on a Chip, 7(4): 441–447 (2007)
  9. Interfacial instabilities affect microfluidic extraction of small molecules from non-Newtonian fluids, Helton, K.L. and Yager, P., Lab on a Chip, 7(11):1581–1588 (2007)
  10. Microfluidic lab-on-a-chip for microbial identification on a DNA microarray, Lee, H.H. and Yager, P., Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 12:634–639 (2007)
  11. Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health, Yager, P., Edwards, T., Fu, E., Helton, K., Nelson, K., Tam, M. and Weigl, B., Nature, 442(7101). 412–418 (2006)
  12. One-dimensional surface plasmon resonance imaging system using wavelength interrogation, Fu, E., Ramsey, S., Thariani, R., and Yager, P., Review of Scientific Instruments, 77 (7): Art. No. 076106 (2006)
  13. Recirculating flow accelerates DNA microarray hybridization in a microfluidic device, Lee, H.H., Smoot, J., McMurray, Z., Stahl, D. A., and Yager, P., Lab on a Chip, 6 (9): 1163–1170 (2006)
  14. Simple quantitative optical method for monitoring the extent of mixing applied to a novel microfluidic mixer, Munson, M.S. and Yager, P., Analytica Chimica Acta, 501(1), 63-71 (2004)
  15. Controlled microfluidic reconstitution of functional protein from an anhydrous storage depot, Garcia, E., Kirkham, J. R., Hatch, A.V, Hawkins, K.R. and Yager, P., Lab on a Chip, 4, 78-82 (2004)
  16. Characterization of a wavelength-tunable surface plasmon resonance microscope, Fu, E., Chinowsky T., Foley, J., Weinstein J., and Yager, P., Review of Scientific Instruments, 75(7), 2300-2304 (2004).
  17. Diffusion-based analysis of molecular interactions in microfluidic devices, Hatch, A., Garcia, E. and Yager, P., IEEE Proceedings, 92(1), 126-139 (2004)
  18. Suppression of non-specific adsorption using sheath flow, Munson, M. S., Hasenbank, M. S., Fu, E. and Yager, P., Lab on a Chip, 4, 438-445 (2004).

Zipora Reuveni


Our long-term goal is to identify means to ameliorate age-related muscle deterioration (sarcopenia) and combat muscle wasting in muscular dystrophy. Sarcopenia is characterized by a decline in mass, strength, and endurance of skeletal muscles, and by fat accumulation between and within myofibers. Subtle muscle injuries that occur during routine muscle activity raise a continuous demand for functional myofiber repair throughout life. However, myogenic stem cell performance declines in old age and this decline can be a contributory factor to sarcopenia. We investigate satellite cells, classically defined tissue specific myogenic stem cells that reside beneath the myofiber basal lamina, as well as non-myogenic progenitors associated with the microvasculature that may contribute to myogenesis by myogenic reprogramming. Our research approach is based on the view that muscle aging is not an isolated event that starts late in life, but rather a continuum of ongoing developmental biology processes that progress with life.


  1. Keire P, Shearer A, Shefer G, Yablonka-Reuveni Z (2013) Isolation and culture of skeletal muscle myofibers as a means to analyze satellite cells. Methods Mol Biol. 946:431-468. Free public access in process. Pubmed
  2. Stuelsatz P, Keire P, Almuly R, Yablonka-Reuveni Z (2012) A Contemporary Atlas of the Mouse Diaphragm: Myogenicity, Vascularity, and the Pax3 Connection. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 60: 638-657. Free public access in process. Pubmed
  3. Danoviz ME, Yablonka-Reuveni Z (2012) Skeletal muscle satellite cells: Background and methods for isolation and analysis in a primary culture system. Methods Mol Biol. 798: 21-52.Pubmed
  4. Yablonka-Reuveni Z (2011) The skeletal muscle satellite cell: still young and fascinating at 50. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 59: 1041-1059. Pubmed
  5. Choi, SJ, Yablonka-Reuveni Z, Kaiyala KJ, Ogimoto K, Schwartz MW, Wisse BE (2011) Increased energy expenditure and leptin sensitivity account for low fat mass in myostatin deficient mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 300: E1031-1037.  Pubmed
  6. Yablonka-Reuveni Z, Day K (2011) Skeletal muscle stem cells in the spotlight: the satellite cell. In: Regenerating the Heart: Stem Cells and the Cardiovascular System (“Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine Series”). Cohen I , Gaudette G, eds. Springer, Humana Press, Chapter 11, pp. 173-200.
  7. Shefer G, Rauner G, Yablonka-Reuveni Z, Benayahu D (2010) Reduced satellite cell numbers and myogenic capacity in aging can be alleviated by endurance exercise. PLoS One. 2010 Oct 12;5(10):e13307 Pubmed

Rheem Totah


Research in the Totah lab is broadly centered on drug-endogenous substrate interactions. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are mainly known for their ability to metabolize xenobiotics. However, some isozymes are also involved in the metabolism of endogenous substrates such as retinoic acid, steroids and essential fatty acids. We are interested in studying the xenobiotics-endogenous substrate interaction and its potential for inducing tissue-specific toxicity in the kidney, heart, and lung. We are also involved in translational research and collaborate with colleagues in the medical center to bridge together wet-lab science and clinical science. On a daily basis we use molecular biology tools, LC-MS/MS analysis, kinetic analysis and chemical synthesis to understand the biochemical and functional aspects of various P450 enzymes.

A separate area of research focuses on cytochrome P450 BM3, and several mutants, as a model system to study the mechanism of electron transfer from NADPH to the heme and the catalytic mechanism of mammalian P450 enzymes.


  1. Kaspera R, Naraharisetti SB, Tamraz B, Sahele T, Kwok P-Y, Marciante K, Heckbert SR, Psaty BM, Totah RA. “In Vitro Metabolism of Cerivastatin by CPY2C8 Variants Found in Patients Experiencing Rhabdomyolysis.” Pharmacogenetics and Genomics. In press.
  2. Naraharisetti SB, Lin YS, Rieder M, Marciante K, Psaty BM, Thummel KE, Totah RA. “Human Liver Expression of CYP2C8: gender, age and genotype effects.” Drug Metab. Dispos. 38(6):889-93 (2010).
  3. Lee C, Neul D, Clouser-Roche A, Dalvie D, Jiang J, Jones III JP, Wester M, Zientek M, Totah RA. “Identification of Novel Substrates for CYP2J2.” Drug Metab. Disp. 38:347-356 (manuscript featured on the cover of February 2010 edition).
  4. Smith, H., Jones, JP III, Kalhorn, T., Farin, F., Stapleton, P., Davis, C., Perkins, J., Blough, D., Hebert M., Thummel, K., Totah, R.A. “Role of Cytochrome P450 2C8 and 2J2 genotype in calcineurin inhibitor induced chronic kidney disease.” Pharmacogenetics and Genomics. Nov;18(11):943-53 (2008).
  5. Marciante, K., Totah, R.A., Heckbert, S., Smith, N., LeMaitre, R., Lumley, T., Rice, K., Hindorff, L., Bis, J., Hartman, B., Psaty, B, “Common Variation in Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenase Genes and the Risk of Incident Non-Fatal Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Stroke.” Pharmacogenet Genomics Jun;18(6):535-543 (2008).
  6. Totah, R.A., Sheffels, P., Roberts, T., Whittington, D., Thummel, K., Kharasch, ED. “Role of CYP2B6 in Stereoselective Human Methadone Metabolism.” Anesthesiology 108:363-74 (2008).
  7. Totah, R.A., Allen, KE, Sheffels, P., Whittington, D., and Kharasch, E.D. “Enantiomeric metabolic interactions and stereoselective human methadone metabolism.” J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 321:389-399 (2007).
  8. Gaedigk, A., Baker, D.W., Totah, R.A., Gaedigk, R., Pearce, R.E., Vyhlidal, C.A., Zeldin, D.C., and Leeder, J.S. “Variability of CYP2J2 expression in human fetal tissues.” J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 319:523-532 (2006).
  9. Totah, R.A., Rettie, A.E. “Principles of drug metabolism, enzymes and tissues.” ComprehensiveDrug Metabolism, 2nd ed. Vol. 5 (2006).
  10. Totah, R.A., Rettie, A.E. “CYP2C8: Substrates, Inhibitors, Pharmacogenetics and Clinical Relevance.” Clin Pharm Therap. 77: 341-352 (2005).
  11. Hanzlik, R. P., Harriman, S. P., Shaffer, C. L., Koen, Y. M., Totah, R. A., and Cerny, M. A. “The Oxidative Metabolism of Cyclopropylamines: Fate of the Three Carbons and Other Interesting Observations.” Synthesis and Application of Isotopically Labelled Compounds, 8:111-114 (2004).
  12. Huang, W., Lin, Y., McConn II, D., Calamia, J., Totah, R., Isoherranen, N., Glodowski, M., and Thummel, K. “Evidence of Significant Contribution From CYP3A5 to Hepatic Drug Metabolism.”Drug Met Dispos. 12:1434-1445 (2004).
  13. Totah, R. A. and Hanzlik, R. P. “Oxidative and Non-Oxidative Decarboxylation of N-Alkyl-N-phenylglycines by Horseradish Peroxidase: Mechanistic Switching by Hydrogen Peroxide, Oxygen and Solvent Deuterium.” Biochemistry 43:7907-7914 (2004) .
  14. Totah, R. A., and Hanzlik, R. P. “Non-Oxidative Decarboxylation of Glycine Derivatives by a Peroxidase.” J Am Chem Soc. 124:10000-10001 (2002).
  15. Totah, R. A., and Hanzlik, R. P. “Detection of Aminium Ion Intermediates: N-Cyclopropyl versus N-Carboxymethyl Groups as Reporters.” J Am Chem Soc. 123:10107-10108 (2001).

Minoru Taya

Background and Interests

Dr. Minoru Taya has been a Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and Adjunct Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, and Electrical Engineering at the University of Washington since 1986. Most recently he becomes Adjunct Professor, School of Oral Health Science , UW. He received a Bachelor of Engineering in 1968 from the University of Tokyo, Japan; Master of Science in Civil Engineering in 1973 and Doctor of Philosophy in Theoretical Applied Mechanics in 1977, both from Northwestern University.

Dr. Taya is currently director of the Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems (CIMS). The intelligent materials that he has been studying are shape memory alloys (SMA), ferromagnetic SMA (FSMA), piezo-composites, electro- and photo-active polymers, and designed actuators based on these materials, including compact ferromagnetic SMA spring actuators, which provides a large stroke and reasonably large force at very high actuation speed. The FSMA actuators are for use in unmanned aircrafts and unmanned ground rover, as well as robotic arms. The electroactive polymers (EAPs) include hydrogels such as Nafion and Flemion, and electrochromic polymers. These EAPs are the key materials for fish fin actuators, smart antenna and smart window technology. In addition, Dr. Taya has been working on design and processing of several energy-harvesting materials and systems; (i) energy-harvesting electrochromic window (NSF-EFRI) and thermoelectric modules with low-cost and light-weight for UAV combustion chambers (AFOSR). Most recently, Dr. Taya has been working on oral implant materials based on toxic-free SMAs.

Dr. Taya served as Associate Editor for Materials Science and Engineering-A, and ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, and chair of the Electronic Materials Committee of ASME Materials Division. Dr. Taya is Fellow of ASME, American Academy of Mechanics, and International Editorial Board member of Advanced Composite Materials.

Dr. Taya has written two monograph books, (i) Metal matrix composites with R.J. Arsenault, Pergamon Press, 1989, and (ii) Electronic Composites, Cambridge University Press, 2005, and currently writing third book, “Bioinspired active and sensing materials and systems” in collaboration with several biologists.


  • ME356: Machine design
  • ME/MSE 485: Electronic packing and materials
  • ME551: Elasticity
  • ME552:Viscoelasticity and Plasticity
  • ME/MSE 562: Electronic Composites
  • ME/MSE 568: Active and sensing materials and devices


  1. Hahl, J. and Taya, M., “Experimental and Numerical Predictions of the Ultimate Strength of a Low-Cost Composite Transtibial Prosthesis”, J. Rehabilitation Research and Development, 37 (4), 2000, pp.405-413.
  2. Zhao, Y. and Taya, M., 2007, “Analytical modeling of stress-strain curve of a porous NiTi”, J Applied Mechanics, vol.74, 291-297.
  3. Yamamoto, T. and Taya, M., 2007, “Martensitic transformation under magnetic field and mechanical loading of Fe-Pd single crystals”, J. Applied Physics Letts, 90, 251905.
  4. Garuraya, S and Taya, M., 2007, “Design of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy composite made of Fe and TiNi particles”, J. Applied Physics, 102, 064910.
  5. Wang, J., Xu, C., Taya, M. and Kuga, Y., 2006, “Mechanical Stability Optimization of Flemion Based Composite Artificial Muscles By Means of Proper Polvent”, J Mater Research, Vol. 21, No. 8, Aug 2006, 2018-2022.
  6. Toi, Y, Lee, JB and Taya, M, 2008,” Magneto-superelastic analysis of shape memory alloy helical spring actuators controlled by magnetic force”, JSME, J. Computational Science and Technology, vol.2, no.1, 2008, pp.11-21.
  7. Wang, J, Sato, H, Xu, Chunye and Taya, M., 2009, “Bioinspired design of tactile sensors based on Flemion”, J. Applied Physics, 105, 083515.
  8. Kim, SY and Taya, M, 2010, “Electropolymerization kinetic study of 3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxepine and its optical optimization for electrochromic window applications”, Electrochimica Acta, 55, 5307- 5311.
  9. Rong, Y., Kim, S.Y., Su, F.,  Myers, D. Taya, M., 2011, “New effective process to    fabricate fast switching and high contrast electrochromic device based on viologen and Prussian blue/antimony tin oxide nano-composites with dark colored state”, Electrochimica Acta 56 , 6230– 6236.


Patrick Stayton


Our research group is interested in elucidating the fundamental mechanisms of biomolecular recognition and applying the unique capabilities of biological molecules to biotechnologies. We would like to bridge the gap between understanding molecular structure-function relationships, and being able to utilize proteins/peptides/DNA for drug therapies, bioanalytics, diagnostics, and biomaterial development.


  1. Drobny, G. P., Long, J. R., Karlsson, T., Shaw, W., Popham, J., Oyler, N., Bower, P., Stringer, J., Gregory, D., Mehta, M., and and Stayton, P. S. “Structural studies of biomaterials using double-quantum solid-state NMR Spectroscopy” (2003) Annual Reviews of Physical Chemistry, 54, 531-571.
  2. Stayton, P. S., Shaw, W. J., Long, J. R., and Drobny, G. P. (2003) “Molecular Recognition at the Protein-HAP Interface” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 14, 370-376.
  3. Gilbert, M., Giachelli, C. M., and Stayton, P. S. (2003) “Biomimetic peptides that engage specific integrin-dependent signaling pathways and bind to calcium phosphate surfaces” J. Biomed. Mat. Res., 67, 69-77.
  4. McDevitt, T. C., Woodhouse, K. A., Murry, C. E., Hauschka, S. D., and Stayton, P. S. (2003) “Spatially Organized Layers of Cardiomyocytes on Biodegradable Polyurethane Films for Myocardial Repair ” J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 66, 586-595.
  5. Stayton PS. (2003) “Delivering the Vaccination Mail” Trends Biotechnol. 21, 465-467.
  6. Malmstadt, N., Yager, P., Hoffman, A. S., and Stayton, P. S. (2003) “A Smart Microfluidic Affinity Chromatography Matrix Composed of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-Coated Beads” Anal. Chem. (Accelerated Article) 75, 2943-2949.
  7. Murthy, N., Campbell, J., Fausto, N., Hoffman, A. S., and Stayton, P. S. (2003) “Design and synthesis of pH-responsive polymeric carriers that target uptake and enhance the intracellular delivery of oligonucleotides. ” J. Cont. Rel., 89, 365-74.
  8. Shimoboji, T., Larenas, E., Fowler, T., Kulkarni, S., Hoffman, A. S., and Stayton, P.S. (2002) “Photo-Responsive Polymer-Enzyme Switches” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99, 16592-6.
  9. McDevitt, T. C., Angello, J. C., Whitney, M. L., Reinecke, H., Hauschka, S. D., Murry, C. E., and Stayton, P. S. (2002) ” In vitro generation of differentiated cardiac myofibers on micropatterned laminin surfaces.” J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 60, 472-479.
  10. Ding, Z., Fong, R. B., Long, C. J., Hoffman, A. S. and Stayton, P. S. (2001) “Size-dependent control of the binding of biotinylated proteins to streptavidin using a polymer shield” Nature 411, 59-62.

Paul Nghiem

Research Interests

Skin cancer biology, particularly the molecular mechanism by which the protein kinase ATR mediates an essential cell cycle arrest following DNA damage such as by ultraviolet radiation.

A major portion of the lab is focused on basic, clinical and translational research aspects of Merkel cell carcinoma. We are involved in several clinical studies on this increasingly common and often lethal skin cancer to determine its basic genetic underpinnings as well as its clinical course and optimal management. The Merkel cell carcinoma Multicenter Interest Group (MMIG), an international collaborative group, has been formed to leverage diverse resources, interests and expertise to make a difference in this cancer.


  1. Boswell SA, Ongusaha PP, Nghiem P, Lee SW. The Protective Role of a Small GTPase RhoE Against UVB-induced DNA Damage in Keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 282(7):4850-4858, 2007.
  2. *Kawasumi M, Nghiem P.  Chemical genetics: Elucidating biological systems with small molecules.  J Invest Dermatol. 127(7):1577-84, 2007.
  3. *Koo S-W, Hirakawa S, Fujii S, Kawasumi M, Nghiem P.  Protection from photodamage by topical application of caffeine after UV. Br J Dermatol. 156:957, 2007.
  4. *Lu YP, Lou YR, Peng QY, Xie JG, Nghiem P, Conney AH. Effect of Caffeine on the ATR/Chk1 Pathway in the Epidermis of UVB-Irradiated Mice. Can Res. 68(7):2523-2529, 2008.
  5. *Heffernan T, Kawasumi M, Blasina A, Anderes K, Conney A, Nghiem P.  ATR–Chk1 Pathway Inhibition Promotes Apoptosis after UV Treatment in Primary Human Keratinocytes: Potential Basis for the UV Protective Effects of Caffeine.  J Invest Dermatol. 2009.
  6. * Lemos B, Storer B, Iyer J, Phillips JL, Bichakjian CK, Fang LC, Johnson TM, Liegeois-Kwon NJ, Otley CC, Paulson KG, Ross MI, Yu SS, Zeitouni NC, Byrd DR, Sondak VK, Gershenwald JE, Sober AJ, Nghiem P. Pathologic nodal evaluation improves prognostic accuracy in Merkel cell carcinoma: Analysis of 5,823 cases as the basis of the first consensus staging system for this cancer. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010. [PubMed]
  7. Kelly G. Paulson*, Joseph J. Carter*, Lisa G. Johnson, Kevin W. Cahill, Jayasri G. Iyer, David Schrama, Juergen C. Becker, Margaret M. Madeleine, Paul Nghiem**, Denise A.Galloway**. Antibodies to Merkel cell polyomavirus T-antigen oncoproteins reflect Merkel cell carcinoma tumor burden. Can Res. 2010. [PubMed]
  8. Kelly G. Paulson, Jayasri G. Iyer, Paul Nghiem. Asymmetric lateral distribution of melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma in the United States. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011.

Cecilia Giachelli


Current projects include:

  • Identifying and applying biomimetic strategies to cell-substrate interactions important for promoting endothelial survival and angiogenesis particularly in the context of biomaterial healing,
  • Biomolecular control of the foreign body reaction, with particular emphasis on the macrophage-mediated inflammatory response to biomaterials
  • Mechanistic studies aimed at developing novel therapeutic targets and approaches for preventing ectopic calcification in disease and medical devices
  • Cardiac valve and esophageal tissue engineering.


  1. Rajachar R, Truong A, Giachelli CM. The influence of surface mineral and osteopontin on the formation and function of murine bone marrow macrophage derived osteoclasts, J Biomed Mater Res, J Mater Sci Mat med, 2008.
  2. M. Linnes, B.D. Ratner, C.M. Giachelli. A Fibrinogen Based Precision Microporous Scaffold for Tissue Engineering: Development and Characterization. Biomaterials, 28(35):5298-306, 2007.
  3. Beckstead, B.L. and C.M. Giachelli. “Mimicking cell-cell interactions at the biomaterial-cell interface” J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006 Oct; 79(1):94-103.
  4. Li X, Ying-Yang H, Giachelli CM. Role of the Sodium Dependent Phosphate Cotransporter, Pit-1, in Vascular Smooth Muscle Calcification. Circ Res. 2006 98:905-12, 2006.
  5. Tsai A, Rice J, Liaw L, Ratner B, Giachelli CM. Osteopntin reduces foreign body giant cell formation in response to biomaterial implantation. Biomaterials, 26:5835-43, 2005.
  6. Ohri R, Tung E, Rajachar R, Giachelli CM. Mitigation of ectopic calcification in osteopontin-deficient mice by exogenous osteopontin: efficacy, potency and mechanism. Calcified Tissue Intl, 76:307-15, 2005.
  7. Cuy JL, Beckstead BL, Brown CD, Hoffman AS, Giachelli CM. Adhesive protein interactions with chitosan: consequences for valve endothelial cell growth on tissue-engineering materials. J Biomed Mater Res, 67A: 538-547, 2003.
  8. Wiester LM, Giachelli CM. Expression and function of the integrin, a9b1, in bovine aortic valve interstitial cells. J Heart Valve Disease, 12: 605-616, 2003.
  9. Speer MY, McKee MD, Guldberg RE, Liaw L, Yang HY, Tung E, Karsenty G, Giachelli CM. Inactivation of the osteopontin gene enhances vascular calcification of matrix gla protein-deficient mice: evidence for osteopontin as an inducible inhibitor of vascular calcification in vivo. J Exp Med 196: 1047-1055, 2002.
  10. Steitz SA, McKee MD, Liaw L, Giachelli CM. Osteopontin inhibits mineral deposition and promotes regression of ectopic calcification. Amer J Path 16:2035-2046, 2002.

Albert Folch


We design and use microfluidic devices to better mimic the real microenvironment of nerve and cancer cells when we culture them outside of the organism. We are microfluidic!​​ ​Examples of questions that interest us are how neurons find their targets during development (axon guidance​), how they establish their connections (synaptogenesis​), and how we sense odors (olfaction​), among other projects. We also build microfluidic devices that allow us to personalize chemotherapy ​and devices to study cancer stem cells​​​. Laboratory website.


  1. K.W. Moyes, C.G. Sip, W. Obenza, E. Yang, C. Horst, R.E. Welikson, S.D. Hauschka, A. Folch, and M. Laflamme, “Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes migrate in response to gradients of fibronectin and Wnt5a”, Stem Cells and Development 22, 1 (2013). Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes show robust promigratory responses to microfluidic gradients of fibronectin and Wnt5a.
  2. Adina Scott, Anthony K. Au, Elise Vinckenbosch, and Albert Folch, “A microfluidic D-subminiature connector”, Lab on a Chip 13, 2036 (2013). We present a novel microfluidic connector based on standard electronic components that are available worldwide.
  3. Peder Skafte-Pedersen, Christopher G. Sip, Albert Folch, and Martin Dufva, “Modular microfluidic systems using reversibly attached PDMS fluid control modules”, Journal of Micromech. Microeng. 23, 055011 (2013). We demonstrate the integration of PDMS-based fluid control modules with hard polymer chips made of PMMA.
  4. Scott, A., Weir, K., Easton, C., Huynh, W., Moody, W.J., and Folch, A., “A microfluidic microelectrode array for simultaneous electrophysiology, chemical stimulation, and imaging of brain slices”, Lab Chip 13, 527 (2013). We demonstrate electrophysiological recordings from the surface of brain slices using a PDMS device featuring multiple apertures that function as extracellular electrodes as well as chemical stimulation points.
  5. A. K. Au, H. Lai, B. R. Utela, and A. Folch, “Microvalves and Micropumps for BioMEMS”, Micromachines 2, 179 (2011). An in-depth review of the designs of micropumps and microvalves that have been used in the BioMEMS literature.
  6. C. G. Sip, N. Bhattacharjee, and A. Folch, “A Modular Cell Culture Device for Generating Arrays of Gradients Using Stacked Microfluidic Flows”, Biomicrofluidics 5, 022210 (2011). This device reports a microfluidic gradient generator for cell culture applications based on the use of stacked laminar flows.
  7. Hoyin Lai and Albert Folch, “Design and characterization of “single-stroke” peristaltic PDMS micropumps”, Lab Chip 11, 336 (2011). We demonstrate a new design of PDMS peristaltic pumps operated with a single control line.
  8. Anna Boardman, Tim Chang, Albert Folch, and Norman J. Dovichi, “Indium-Tin Oxide Coated Microfabricated Device for the Injection of a Single Cell into a Fused Silica Capillary for Chemical Cytometry”, Analytical Chemistry 82, 9959 (2010). We describe a microfabricated device for the capture and injection of a single mammalian cell into a fused silica capillary for subsequent analysis by chemical cytometry.
  9. Nirveek Bhattacharjee, Nianzhen Li, Thomas M. Keenan, and Albert Folch, “A neuron-benign microfluidic gradient generator for studying the response of mammalian neurons towards axon guidance factors”, Integrative Biology 2, 669 (2010). We record axonal growth of mouse embryonic cortical neurons in response to netrin gradients generated with a low-shear, open-bath microfluidic device.
  10. David M. Cate, Christopher Sip, and Albert Folch, “A microfluidic platform for generation of sharp gradients in open-access culture”, Biomicrofluidics 4, 044105 (2010). We demonstrate a membrane-based gradient generator that is compatible with open cell cultures.
  11. John M. Hoffman, Mitsuhiro Ebara, James J. Lai, Allan S. Hoffman, Albert Folch, and Patrick Stayton, “A helical flow, circular microreactor for separating and enriching “smart: polymer-antibody capture reagents”, Lab Chip 10, 3130 (2010). We report a mechanistic study of how flow and recirculation in a microreactor can be used to optimize the capture and release of stimuli-responsive polymer–protein reagents on stimuli-responsive polymer-grafted channel surfaces.
  12. Ellen Tenstad, Anna Tourovskaia, Albert Folch, Ola Myklebost, and Edith Rian, “Extensive adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of patterned human mesenchymal stem cells in a microfluidic device”, Lab Chip 10, 1401 (2010).–> Inside cover article.  Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of patterned human mesenchymal stem cells is demonstrated using long-term microfluidic perfusion.
  13. Figueroa, X.A., Cooksey, G.A., Votaw, S.V., Horowitz, L.F., and Folch, A., “Large-scale investigation of the olfactory receptor space using a microfluidic microwell array”, Lab Chip 10, 1120 (2010). –> Cover article & Cited in Chemical Technology Highlights section. We show simultaneous calcium recordings of mouse dissociated olfactory sensory neurons in large microarrays so that the whole repertoire of mouse olfactory receptors is probed in one experiment.
  14. Keenan, T.M., Frevert, C.W., Wu, A., Wong, V., and Folch, A., “A New Method for Studying Gradient-Induced Neutrophil Desensitization Based on an Open Microfluidic Chamber”, Lab Chip 10, 116 (2010). This paper demonstrates neutrophil chemotaxis measurements in an open microfluidic chamber.
  15. Sidorova, J.M. Li, N., Schwartz, D.C., Folch, A., and Monnat Jr., R.J. “Microfluidic-assisted analysis of replicating DNA molecules”, Nature Protocols 4, 849 (2009). This paper presents detailed protocols on how to stretch DNA on glass surfaces using microfluidic channels.

David Eyre


We are studying the assembly of the extracellular matrix of skeletal tissues and molecular basis of various inborn and acquired skeletal disorders. The emphasis is on collagen structure and function, and current interests include: (1) mechanisms of collagen cross-linking in bone and cartilage (2) matrix assembly and degradation in cartilages (3) protein consequences of mutations causing chondrodysplasia syndromes (4) metabolic changes in cartilage in osteoarthritis (5) the extracellular matrix of the intervertebral disc and (6) molecular markers of bone and cartilage turnover.


  1. Wu JJ, Weis MA, Kim LS, Carter BG, Eyre DR. Differences in Chain Usage and Cross-linking Specificities of Cartilage Type V/XI Collagen Isoforms with Age and Tissue. J Biol Chem. 2009 Feb 27;284(9):5539-45. Epub 2008 Dec 22.
  2. Seegmiller RE, Bomsta BD, Bridgewater LC, Niederhauser CM, Montaño C, Sudweeks S, Eyre DR, Fernandes RJ. The heterozygous disproportionate micromelia (dmm) mouse: morphological changes in fetal cartilage precede postnatal dwarfism and compared with lethal homozygotes can explain the mild phenotype. J Histochem Cytochem. 2008 Nov;56(11):1003-11. Epub 2008 Aug 4.
  3. Baldridge D, Schwarze U, Morello R, Lennington J, Bertin TK, Pace JM, Pepin MG, Weis M, Eyre DR, Walsh J, Lambert D, Green A, Robinson H, Michelson M, Houge G, Lindman C, Martin J, Ward J, Lemyre E, Mitchell JJ, Krakow D, Rimoin DL, Cohn DH, Byers PH, Lee B. CRTAP and LEPRE1 mutations in recessive osteogenesis imperfecta. Hum Mutat. 2008 Dec;29(12):1435-42.
  4. Giunta C, Elçioglu NH, Albrecht B, Eich G, Chambaz C, Janecke AR, Yeowell H, Weis M, Eyre DR, Kraenzlin M, Steinmann B. Spondylocheiro dysplastic form of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome–an autosomal-recessive entity caused by mutations in the zinc transporter gene SLC39A13. Am J Hum Genet. 2008 Jun;82(6):1290-305.
  5. Eyre DR, Weis MA, Wu JJ. Advances in collagen cross-link analysis. Methods. 2008 May;45(1):65-74.
  6. Fernandes RJ, Weis M, Scott MA, Seegmiller RE, Eyre DR. Collagen XI chain misassembly in cartilage of the chondrodysplasia (cho) mouse. Matrix Biol. 2007 Oct;26(8):597-603. Epub 2007 Jul 6.
  7. Fernandes RJ, Harkey MA, Weis M, Askew JW, Eyre DR. The post-translational phenotype of collagen synthesized by SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cells. Bone. 2007 May;40(5):1343-51. Epub 2007 Jan 25.
  8. Cabral WA, Chang W, Barnes AM, Weis M, Scott MA, Leikin S, Makareeva E, Kuznetsova NV, Rosenbaum KN, Tifft CJ, Bulas DI, Kozma C, Smith PA, Eyre DR, Marini JC. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 deficiency causes a recessive metabolic bone disorder resembling lethal/severe osteogenesis imperfecta. Nat Genet. 2007 Mar;39(3):359-65. Epub 2007 Feb 4. Erratum in: Nat Genet. 2008 Jul;40(7):927.
  9. Barnes AM, Chang W, Morello R, Cabral WA, Weis M, Eyre DR, Leikin S, Makareeva E, Kuznetsova N, Uveges TE, Ashok A, Flor AW, Mulvihill JJ, Wilson PL, Sundaram UT, Lee B, Marini JC. Deficiency of cartilage-associated protein in recessive lethal osteogenesis imperfecta. N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 28;355(26):2757-64.
  10. Morello R, Bertin TK, Chen Y, Hicks J, Tonachini L, Monticone M, Castagnola P, Rauch F, Glorieux FH, Vranka J, Bächinger HP, Pace JM, Schwarze U, Byers PH, Weis M, Fernandes RJ, Eyre DR, Yao Z, Boyce BF, Lee B. CRTAP is required for prolyl 3- hydroxylation and mutations cause recessive osteogenesis imperfecta. Cell. 2006 Oct 20;127(2):291-304.
  11. Goto T, Matsui Y, Fernandes RJ, Hanson DA, Kubo T, Yukata K, Michigami T, Komori T, Fujita T, Yang L, Eyre DR, Yasui N. Sp1 family of transcription factors regulates the human alpha2 (XI) collagen gene (COL11A2) in Saos-2 osteoblastic cells. J Bone Miner Res. 2006 May;21(5):661-73.

Michael Cunningham


Michael L. Cunningham, MD, PhD, is chief of the Division of Craniofacial Medicine and professor of pediatrics at the University of Washington School of Medicine. He is the medical director of Seattle Children’s Craniofacial Center and holds the Jean Renny Endowed Chair in Craniofacial Medicine. He is also an adjunct professor of Biological Structures, Oral Biology, and Pediatrics Dentistry at the University of Washington Schools of Medicine and Dentistry. Dr. Cunningham balances responsibilities in administration, patient care and research. He does bedside teaching of medical students, dental students and pediatric residents. His clinical interests focus on the diagnosis and long-term interdisciplinary care of children with craniofacial malformations with a particular interest in craniosynostosis. He is co-investigator on several clinical research projects, ranging from the epidemiology of positional plagiocephaly to the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea. Dr. Cunningham’s basic molecular and developmental biology lab has been active since 1993. Using mouse and human models Dr. Cunningham’s research team investigate the molecular causes of craniosynostosis and developmental pathogenesis of midface hypoplasia associated with syndromic craniosynostosis.


  1. Speltz ML, Collett B, Stott-Miller M, Starr JR, Heike CL, Wolfram-Aduan A, King D, Cunningham ML. Case-control study of neurodevelopment in infants with deformational plagiocephaly.Pediatrics. 2010 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID:20156894.
  2. Hing AV, Click E, Vessey K, Seto M, Holder U, Gruss J, Hopper R, Cunningham ML. Bilateral lambdoid and sagittal synostosis (BLSS): a unique craniosynostosis syndrome or predictable phenotype? Am J Med Genet A 2009; 149A(5):1024-1032.
  3. Ruiz-Correa S, Starr JR, Lin HJ, Kapp-Simon KA, Sze RW, Ellenbogen RG, Speltz ML, Cunningham ML. New severity indices for quantifying single-suture metopic craniosynostosis. Neurosurgery2008; 63(2):318-24; discussion 324-5.
  4. Cunningham ML, Seto ML, Ratisoontorn C, Heike CL, Hing AV. Syndromic craniosynostosis: from history to hydrogen bonds. Orthod Craniofac Res (Invited review) 2007; 10:67–81.
  5. Seto ML, Hing AV, Chang J, Hu M, Kapp-Simon KA, Patel PK, Burton BK, Kane A, Smyth MD, Hopper R, Ellenbogen RG, Stevenson K, Speltz ML, Cunningham ML. Isolated sagittal and coronal craniosynostosis associated with TWIST box mutations. Am J Med Genet A 2007; 143:678-686.
  6. Hatch NE, Hudson M, Seto ML, Cunningham ML, Bothwell M. Intracellular retention, degradation, and signaling of glycosylation-deficient FGFR2 and craniosynostosis syndrome-associated FGFR2C278F. J Biol Chem 2006; 281(37):27292-27305.
  7. Cunningham ML, Seto ML, Hing AV, Bull MJ, Hopkin RJ, Leppig KA. Cleidocranial dysplasia with severe parietal bone dysplasia: C-terminal RUNX2 mutations. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol2006; 76(2):78-85.
  8. Ratisoontorn C, Seto ML, Broughton KM, Cunningham ML. In-vitro differentiation profile of osteoblasts derived from patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Bone 2005; 36(4):627-634.
  9. Heike CL, Seto M, Hing AV, Palidin A, Hu FZ, Preston RA, Ehrlich GD, Cunningham ML. A century of Jackson-Weiss syndrome: further definition of clinical and radiographic findings in ‘lost’ descendants of the original kindred. Am J Med Genet 2001; 100(4):315-324.
  10. Dry GM, Yasinskaya YI, Williams JK, Erhlich G, Preston R, Gruss JS, Ellenbogen RG, Cunningham ML. Inhibition of apoptosis: a potential mechanism for syndromic craniosynostosis. Plast Reconstr Surg 2001; 107(2):425-432.

Peter Byers


We are pursuing several lines of research: the characterization of mutations in type I collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2) that give rise to forms of osteogenesis imperfecta and other disorders, the identification and characterization of mutations in the type III collagen gene (COL3A1) which give rise to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, characterization of mutations in other genes (e.g., COL5A1, COL5A2, PLOD1 and the N-terminal procollagen protease) that result in other forms of connective tissue disorder, identification of proteins in the intracellular and extracellular processing pathways that identify abnormal collagen proteins, and the mechanisms of mRNA processing in collagen genes to predict the outcome of splice site mutations. In addition, we are searching for other genes that may give rise to phenotypes of osteogenesis imperfecta, and determining the rate and genetic basis of parental mosaicism for mutations in these genes.

The majority of mutations in the COL1Al and COLlA2 genes that cause OI result in substitution for glycines within the triple helix. Most of the remainder alter splice sites. Our studies of the mutations suggest that in some instances the order of exon splicing may determine the effects of splice mutations; as a consequence we are studying the order of intron removal in such cell strains. One of the most puzzling aspects of OI has been the failure to identify mutations in all affected individuals. Using long amplification regions, we have noted low level splice defects in some such patients that result in the production of only a small amount of abnormal molecules due to the presence of 5-10% abnormal mRNA species as a consequence of mutations outside the canonical splice site sequences. However, it is clear that some mutations reside outside these two gene.

We have now characterized almost 400 mutations in our families with EDS type IV. These are more heavily weighted to point mutations that result in substitutions for glycine residues within the triple helix of the molecule than mutations that alter splice site integrity. Some mutations prohibit mRNA transport from the nucleus when introns that contain termination codons are included. These findings suggest that there is a link between splicing and nuclear recognition of premature termination codons that may be different from the recognition process that leads to cytoplasmic nonsense-codon mediated mRNA decay. The mechanisms of recognition of these structures is being pursued.

Similar approaches are being taken to disorders which result from several other genes involved in connective tissue biogenesis.


  1. Persikov AV, Pillitteri RJ, Amin P, Schwarze U, Byers PH, Brodsky B (Oct 2004) Stability related bias in residues replacing glycines within the collagen triple helix (Gly-Xaa-Yaa) in inherited connective tissue disorders., Human Mutation, 24(4)330-7
  2. Byers PH (Jul 2004) Determination of the molecular basis of Marfan syndrome: a growth industry., The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 114(2)161-3
  3. Schwarze U, Hata R, McKusick VA, Shinkai H, Hoyme HE, Pyeritz RE, Byers PH (May 2004) Rare autosomal recessive cardiac valvular form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome results from mutations in the COL1A2 gene that activate the nonsense-mediated RNA decay pathway., American Journal of Human Genetics, 74(5)917-30
  4. Kaiser FJ, Brega P, Raff ML, Byers PH, Gallati S, Kay TT, de Almeida S, Horsthemke B, Ludecke HJ (Feb 2004) Novel missense mutations in the TRPS1 transcription factor define the nuclear localization signal., European Journal of Human Genetics : Ejhg, 12(2)121-6
  5. Chamberlain JR, Schwarze U, Wang PR, Hirata RK, Hankenson KD, Pace JM, Underwood RA, Song KM, Sussman M, Byers PH, Russell DW (Feb 2004) Gene targeting in stem cells from individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta., Science, 303(5661)1198-201
  6. Palmeri S, Mari F, Meloni I, Malandrini A, Ariani F, Villanova M, Pompilio A, Schwarze U, Byers PH, Renieri A (Jun 2003) Neurological presentation of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV in a family with parental mosaicism., Clinical Genetics, 63(6)510-5
  7. Pace JM, Corrado M, Missero C, Byers PH (Mar 2003) Identification, characterization and expression analysis of a new fibrillar collagen gene, COL27A1., Matrix Biology : Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology, 22(1)3-14
  8. Takahara K, Schwarze U, Imamura Y, Hoffman GG, Toriello H, Smith LT, Byers PH, Greenspan DS (Sep 2002) Order of intron removal influences multiple splice outcomes, including a two-exon skip, in a COL5A1 acceptor-site mutation that results in abnormal pro-alpha1(V) N-propeptides and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type I., American Journal of Human Genetics, 71(3)451-65
  9. Marlowe A, Pepin MG, Byers PH (Jun 2002) Testing for osteogenesis imperfecta in cases of suspected non-accidental injury., Journal of Medical Genetics, 39(6)382-6
  10. Chuman H, Trobe JD, Petty EM, Schwarze U, Pepin M, Byers PH, Deveikis JP (Jun 2002) Spontaneous direct carotid-cavernous fistula in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: two case reports and a review of the literature., Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology : the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-ophthalmology Society., 22(2)75-81

C. Michele Lloid

Ms. Lloid is a recognized clinical expert on the oral tissue manifestations of bone marrow transplantation and graft versus host disease and has been involved in treating bone marrow transplant recipients. She is one of the key clinical personnel in Oral Medicine studies dealing with the management of transplant related oral mucositis, changes in oral microflora, oral tissue pathologies and other effects of transplant-related procedures. Her roles include recruiting subjects, collaborating in designing treatment and data collection protocols, organizing the collected data, ensuring study procedures were followed, collaborating on data analysis and interpretation, and collaborating on writing the resulting manuscripts.

  1. Lloid, Michele E. Oral Examination. In ONS Blood and Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplant Special Interest Group Newsletter. Volume 18, Issue 1 Feb. 2007
  2. Schubert, MM, Eduardo, FP, Guthrie, K, Franquine, JC, Bensadoun, RJ, Lloid, ME, Eduardo, CP, Niccoli-Filho, W, Marques, MM, Migliorati, CA, Hamdi, MA. Phase III randomized double-blind placebo controlled clinical trials to determine the efficacy of low energy laser therapy for the prevention of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Support Care Cancer. 15:1145-1147, 2007.
  3. Nash, RA, Johnston, L, Parker, P, McCune, JS, Storer, B, Slattery, JT, Furlong, T, Anasetti, C, Appelbaum, FR, Lloid, ME, Deeg, HF, Kiem, H-P, Martin, PJ, Schubert, MM, Witherspoon, RP, Forman, SJ, Blume, KJ, Storb, R. A Phase 1-2 Study of Mycophenolate Mofetil in Combination with Cyclosporine for Prophylaxis of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease after Myeloablative Conditioning and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. Boil Blood Marrow Transplant. 11:495-505, 2005.
  4. Robien, K, Schubert, MM, Bruemmer, B, Lloid, ME, Potter, JD, Ulrich, CM. Predictors of oral mucositis in patients receiving hematopoietic cell transplants for chronic myelogenous leukemia. J Clin Oncol, 22(7):1268-75, 2004.

Norma Wells

Current Research

  • Dental Hygiene Education
  • Community-based oral health promotion and program development
  • Dental caries research
  • International dental hygiene program development

Future Research

  • Community-wide strategies to promote oral health
  • Beta Defensins in caries prone children

Marilynn Rothen

Research Interests

Current research interests are primarily in the area of dental caries management and caries risk assessment, in addition to a long standing interest in the treatment of patients with dental fear and related behavior modification.


  1. Cuhna-Cruz, J., Wataha, J.C., Heaton, L.J., Rothen, M., Sobieraj, M., Scott, J., and Berg, J.  The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices in the northwest United States. J Am Dent Assoc 2013; 144:288-96.
  2. Cuhna-Cruz, J., Scott, J., Rothen, M., Mancl, L., Lawton, T., Brossel, K., and Berg, J. Salivary Characteristics and Dental Caries: Evidence from General Dental Practices. J Am Dent Assoc 2013; 144:e31-40.
  3. Rothen, M., Cunha-Cruz, J., Mancl, L., Leroux, B., Latzke Davis, B., Coyne, J., Gillette, J., Berg, J. Inter-examiner Reliability of Salivary Diagnostic Tests in a Practice-based Research Network. J Dent Hyg 2011; 85:143-50.
  4. Persson, G.R., Hitti, J., Verhelst, R., Vaneechoutte, M., Persson, R.E., Hirschi, R., Weibel, M., Rothen, M., Temmerman, M., Paul, K., Eschenbach, D. The vaginal microflora in relation to gingivitis. BMC Infectious Diseases 2009, 9:6.
  5. Ly, K.A., Riedy, C.A., Milgrom, P., Rothen, M., Roberts, M.C., Zhou, L. Xylitol Gummy Bear Snacks: A School-based Randomized Clinical Trial. BMC Oral Health 2008 Jul 25;8:20.
  6. Riedy, C.A., Milgrom, P., Ly, K.A., Rothen, M., Mueller, G., Hagstrom, M.K., Tolentino, E., Zhou, L., Roberts, M.C. A Surrogate Method for Comparison Analysis of Salivary Concentrations of Xylitol-Containing Products. BMC Oral Health 2008, 8:5.
  7. Ly, K.A., Milgrom, P., Roberts, M.C., Yamaguchi, D.K., Rothen, M., Mueller, G. Linear Response of Mutans Streptococci to Increasing Frequency of Xylitol Chewing Gum Use: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  BMC Oral Health 2006 Mar 24; 6:6.
  8. Milgrom, P., Ly, K.A., Roberts, M.C., Rothen, M., Mueller, G., Yamaguchi, D.K.  Mutans Streptococci Dose Response to Xylitol Chewing Gum.  J Dent Res 2006; 85: 177-181.

Tracy Popowics

Dr. Popowics’ research investigates the biomechanics of dental and craniofacial tissues across multiple scales and tissue types. This work examines how biomechanical processes that occur at the macroscale, such as tooth loading during mastication, influence processes that occur at the nanoscale including cellular functions, and vice versa. Her pursuit of an understanding of load transmission within orofacial tissues on these two scales is critical to understanding the etiology of pathological conditions.

  1. DENTFN 523: Oral Histology and Embryology 1
  2. DENTFN 533: Oral Histology and Embryology 2
  1. Houg, K.P., Armijo, L., Major, P., Popowics, T., Dennison, C. and Romanyk,D. Experimental repeatability, sensitivity, and reproducibility of strain and force measurements during ex vivo tooth loading. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 2021; 120 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.104562.
  2. Al-Rekabi, Z., Fura, A.M., Juhlin, I., Yassin, A., Popowics, T.E. and Sniadecki, N.J. Hyaluronan-CD44 interactions mediate contractility and migration in periodontal ligament cells. Cell Adhes. Migr. 2019; 13(1): 138-150, 2019.
  3. Hudson D.M., Garibov, M., Dixon, D.R., Popowics T.E. and Eyre, D.R. Distinct post- translational features of type I collagen are conserved in mouse and human periodontal ligament. Periodont. Res. 2017; 52:1042– 1049.
  4. Popowics, T.E., Yeh, K.D., Rafferty, K., and Herring, S.W.: Functional cues in the development of osseous tooth support in the pig, Sus scrofa. Biomech. 42(12): 1961-6, 2009.
  5. Popowics, T.E., and Herring, S.W.: Load transmission in the nasofrontal suture of the pig, Sus scrofa. J. Biomech. 40(4): 837-44, 2007.

Christy McKinney


Christy McKinney, PhD, MPH is an Associate Professor in Craniofacial Medicine, Pediatrics in the School of Medicine and an Adjunct Associate Professor in Oral Health Sciences, School of Dentistry. She is also an investigator in Seattle Children’s Research Institute’s Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development, and in the Seattle Children’s Hospital Craniofacial Center. She received her PhD (2006) in epidemiology from the University of Washington.

Dr. McKinney’s research interests are focused on the intersection of craniofacial, oral, and nutritional health in young children, both locally and globally. She is the principal investigator of a R01 grant from NIDCR investigating the extent to which children are exposed to the chemical Bisphenol A (BPA) during dental treatment. She also spearheaded the development of the NIFTY™ cup –  an infant feeding cup for infants with breastfeeding difficulties (e.g. infants with oral clefts and preterm infants) in low resource settings – with a team of multidisciplinary experts from Seattle Children’s, the University of Washington, PATH, and Laerdal Global Health with clinical testing at Sri Ramachandra University, India.

Dr. McKinney is also the Director of the Summer Institute in Clinical Dental Research Methods at the University of Washington, School of Dentistry and Associate Director of the Institute of Translational Sciences (ITHS) KL2 Career Development program, which trains career development KL2 Scholars through weekly seminars and small group sessions.


  1. McKinney CM, Pisek A, Chowchuen B, Pisek A, DeRouen T, Muktabhant B, Yeung C, Pitiphat W. A case control study of nutritional and environmental factors and the risk of oral clefts. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 2016, Vol. 106, pp.624-632.
  2. McKinney CM, Glass R, Coffey P, Rue T, Cunningham M. Feeding neonates and young infants by cup: A systematic review of the literature. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2016, Vol. 20, No. 8, pp.1620-1633.
  3. McKinney CM, Rue T, Sathyanarayana S, Martin M, Seminario AL, DeRouen T.   Dental Sealants and Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations in Children in the 2003-2004 NHANES. Journal of the American Dental Association, 2014, Vol. 145, No. 7, pp.745-50.
  4. Nirunsittirat, A*, Pitiphat, W, McKinney CM, DeRouen, TA, Chansamak N, Angwaravong, O, Patcharanuchat P, Pimpak T. Breastfeeding duration and childhood caries: a cohort study. Caries Research, 2016, Vol 50, No. 5, pp. 498-507.
  5. Seattle Children’s Hospital 2015 Academic Report. Inquiry to Action. Low-Tech Fix to Deadly Issue. March 30, 2016.

Lloyd Mancl

His research interests are in statistical methods for dental research, with an emphasis on longitudinal and correlated data and applied research on caries, temporomandibular disorders, and periodontal disease. For over 15 years he has served as a biostatistician on numerous and varied research projects, including basic science and experimental studies, large observational and longitudinal studies, single and multi-center randomized clinical trials, and practice based research. Currently, he is the director of the Statistics & Data Coordinating Center for the Northwest Center to Reduced Oral Health Disparities, anda co-investigator in the Data & Coordinating Center for Northwest Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based Dentistry (NW-PRECEDENT).

  1. Richman JA, Huebner CE, Leggott PJ, Mouradian WE, Mancl LA. “Beyond word recognition: understanding pediatric oral health literacy.” Pediatric Dentistry, 2011; 33(5): 420-425. PMCID: In process
  2. Chen IC, Brudvik JS, Mancl LA, Rubenstein JE, Chitswe K, Raigrodski AJ. “Freedom of rotation of selected overdenture attachments: An in vitro study.”  Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 2011; 106(2): 78-86.
  3. Turner JA, Mancl L, Huggins HK, Sherman JJ, Lentz G, Leresche L. “Targeting temporomandibular disorder pain treatment to hormonal fluctuations: A randomized clinical trial.” Pain, 2011; 152(9): 2074-2084. PMCID: PMC3157596.
  4. Janssens KAM, Rosmalen JGM, Ormel J, Verhulst FC, Hunfeld JAM, Mancl LA, Oldehinkel AJ, LeResche L. “Pubertal status predicts back pain, overtiredness, and dizziness in American and Dutch adolescents.” Pediatrics, 2011; 128: 553-559. PMCID: PMC3164091
  5. Rothen M, Cunha-Cruz J, Mancl L, Leroux B, Davis BL, Coyne J, Gillette J, Berg J. “Inter-examiner reliability of salivary diagnostic tests in a practice-based research network.” The Journal of Dental Hygiene, 2011; 85(2): 143-150. PMCID: In process
  6. Castillo JL, Rivera S, Aparicio T, Lazo R, Aw TC, Mancl L, Milgrom P. “The short-term effects of diammine silver on tooth sensitivity: a randomized controlled trial.” Journal of Dental Research, 2011; 90(2): 203-208.
  7. Milgrom P, Ly KA, Tut OK, Mancl L, Roberts M, Briand K, Gancio MJ. “Xylitol pediatric topical oral syrup to prevent dental caries: a double-blind randomized clinical trial of efficacy.”  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2009;163(7):601-7. (IADR Aubrey Sheiham Award for Distinguished Research in Dental Public Health Sciences, 2010). PMCID: PMC2722805
  8. LeResche, L., Mancl, L.A., Drangsholt, M.T., Huang, G. “Predictors of onset of facial pain and temporomandibular disorders in early adolescents.” Pain, 129, 269-278, 2007.  PMCID: PMC1979093  (IADR Aubrey Sheiham Award for Distinguished Research in Dental Public Health Sciences, 2008)
  9. DeRouen T.A., Hujoel P., Leroux B., Mancl L., Sherman J., Hilton T., Berg J., Ferracance J. for the Northwest Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based Dentistry (PRECEDENT). “Preparing practicing dentists to engage in practice-based research.” Journal of the American Dental Association, 139, 339-345, 2008.
  10. Leroux, B.G., Mancl, L.A., DeRouen, T.A. “Group sequential testing in dental clinical trials with longitudinal data on multiple outcome variables.” Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 14, 591-602 2005. Mancl L.A., Hujoel P.P., DeRouen T.A. “Efficiency issues among statistical methods for demonstrating efficacy of caries prevention – site versus subject.” Journal of Dental Research, 83 (Special Issue C), C95-C98, 2004.
  11. Dworkin, S.F., Huggins, K.H., Wilson, L., Mancl, L., Turner, J., Massoth, D., LeResche, L, Truelove, E. “A randomized clinical trial using research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders – Axis II to target clinic cases for a tailored self-care TMD treatment program.” Journal of Orofacial Pain, 16, 48-63. (Giddon Award for Distinguished Research in the Behavioral Sciences. Awarded by the Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group of the International Association of Dental Research, 2003.)
  12. Mancl, L.A., DeRouen, T.A. “A covariance estimator for GEE with improved small sample properties.”  Biometrics, 57, 126-134, 2001.
  13. Mancl, L.A., Leroux, B.G., DeRouen, T.A. “Between-subject and within-subject statistical information in dental research.” Journal of Dental Research, 79, 1778-1781, 2000.
  14. Milgrom, P., Mancl, L., King, B., Weinstein, P., Wells, N., Jeffcott, E. “An explanatory model of the dental care utilization of low income children.” Medical Care, 36, 554-566 1998. (Giddon Award for Distinguished Research in the Behavioral Sciences. Awarded by the Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group of the International Association of Dental Research, 1999.)
  15. Mancl, L.A., Leroux, B.G. “Efficiency of regression estimates for clustered data.” Biometrics, 52,500-511, 1996.

Brian Leroux

Dr. Brian Leroux is a Professor in the Department of Oral Health Sciences with a joint appointment in the Department of Biostatistics. He received his PhD in Statistics from The University of British Columbia in 1989 and has been at the University of Washington since 1991. He is currently the director of the Data Coordinating Center for Northwest PRECEDENT, a practice-based dental research network.

Dr. Leroux’s main research interest is in statistical methods for correlated data with applications to dental research and other fields. In addition to his work on Northwest PRECEDENT he collaborates with Seattle Children’s Hospital investigators on studies on craniofacial anomalies and is a Biostatistician and Associate Director of the data coordinating center for the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium which conducts clinical trials in emergency medicine.
  1. Collett BR, Speltz ML, Cloonan YK, Leroux BG, Kelly JP, Werler MM: Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with hemifacial microsomia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 165(2):134-140, Feb, 2011.
  2. Rothen M, Cunha-Cruz J, Mancl L, Leroux B, Davis BL, Coyne J, Gillette J, Berg J: Inter-examiner reliability of salivary diagnostic tests in a practice-based network. J Dental Hygiene 85(2):143-150, Spring, 2011.
  3. Barasch A, Cunha-Cruz J, Curro FA, Hujoel P, Sung AH, Vena D, Voinea-Griffin AE, for the CONDOR Collaborative Group (Beadnell S, Craig RG, DeRouen T, Desaranayake A, Gilbert A, Gilbert GH, Goldberg K, Hauley R, Hashimoto M, Holmes J, Latzke B, Leroux B, Lindblad A, Richman J, Safford M, Ship J, Thompson VP, Williams OD, Yin W): Risk factors for osteonecrosis of the jaws: a dental practice-based research network case-control study. J Dent Res 90(4):439-444,  2011.
  4. Dufton LM, Speltz ML, Kelly JP, Leroux B, Collett BR, Werler MM: Psychosocial outcomes in children with hemifacial microsomia. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 36(7):794-805, Aug, 2011.
  5. Stiell IG, Nichol G, Leroux BG, Rea TD, Ornato JP, Powell J, Christenson J, Callaway CW, Kudenchuk PJ, Aufderheide TP, Idris AH, Daya MR, Wang HE, Morrison LJ, Davis D, Andrusiek D, Stephens S, Cheskes S, Schmicker RH, Fowler R, Vaillancourt C, Hostler D, Zive D, Pirrallo RG, Vilke GM, Sopko G, Weisfeldt M, and the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortiurm (ROC) Investigators: Early versus later rhythm analysis in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. New Eng J Med 365(9):787-797, Sept 1, 2011.
  6. Aufderheide TP, Nichol G, Rea TD, Brown SP, Leroux BG, Pepe PE, Kudenchuk PJ, Christenson J, Daya MR, Dorian P, Callaway CW, Idris AH, Andrusiek D, Nichol G, Stephens SW, Hostler D, Davis DP, Dunford JV, Pirrallo RG, Stiell IG, Clement CM, Craig A, Van Ottingham L, Schmidt TA, Wang HE, Weisfeldt ML, Ornato JP, Sopko G, and the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortiurm (ROC) Investigators: A trial of an impedance threshold device in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. New Eng J Med 365(9):798-806, Sept 1, 2011.
  7. Huang Y, Leroux BG: Informative cluster sizes and weighted generalized estimating equations. Biometrics 67(3):843-851, Sep, 2011.
  8. Torres SR, Chen CSK, Leroux BG, Lee PP, Hollender LG, Schubert MM: Fractal dimension evaluation of cone beam computed tomography in patients with bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, 40(8):501-505, Dec, 2011.
  9. Flemmig TF, Arushanov D, Daubert D, Rothen M, Mueller G, Leroux BG: Randomized controlled trial assessing harm and efficacy of glycine powder air polishing in deep periodontal pockets. Journal of Periodontology, In Press, 2011.

Susanne Kölare Jeffrey


Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Release of regulatory proteins into saliva during normal physiological conditions, as well as when glands are compromised and salivary gland secretion is affected. Methodology: Gel electrophoresis, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence and confocal microscopy, in situ hybridization.


  1. Zhang W, Efanov A, Yang S-N, Fried G, Kölare S, Brown H, Zaitsev S, Berggren P-O, Meister B (2000) Munc-18 associates with syntaxin and serves as a negative regulator of exocytosis in the pancreatic b-cell. J Biol Chem 275(52):41521-41527.
  2. Sundström E, Kölare S, Souverbie F, Samuelsson E B, Pschera H, Lunell N O, Seiger Å (1993) Chemical differentiation of human bulbospinal monoaminergic neurons during the first trimester. Dev Brain Res, 75(1):1 – 12.
  3. Larsson S, Hultgård-Nilsson A, Kölare S, Luthman J, Sejersen T, Aperia A (1991) Serum factors induce c-fos expression and rapid cell proliferation in adolescent but not in infant rat proximal tubular cells. Pediatr Res 29:263-267.
  4. Kölare S (1989) Studies on thymocyte subpopulations in guinea pigs, with special reference to proliferation and differentiation. Ph.D. thesis, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.

Philippe P. Hujoel


Education:  The Free University of Brussels (dental degree), the University of Washington (specialty training in periodontics and a doctoral degree in epidemiology), and the University of Michigan (a master of science in biostatistics).

Service: Clinical practice limited to periodontics

  • Nutrition  with a focus on low carbohydrate diets
  • The harmful effects of diagnostic radiation
  • Evidence-Based Methodology and Applications
  • DPHS 535
  • DPHS 569
  1. Hujoel PP.  Vitamin D and Dental Caries:  Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (2012) Nutrition Reviews. In press.
  2. Hujoel PP, Becker W, and  Becker B: Monitoring Failure Rates of Commercial Implant Brands; Substantial Equivalence in Question? (2012) Clinical Oral Implants Research.
  3. Hujoel P, Zina LG, Cunha-Cruz J, Lopez R. Historical perspectives on theories of periodontal disease etiology. Periodontol 2000. Feb 2012;58(1):153-160.
  4. Rethman MP, Beltran-Aguilar ED, Billings RJ, et al. Nonfluoride caries-preventive agents: executive summary of evidence-based clinical recommendations. J Am Dent Assoc. Sep 2011;142(9):1065-1071.
  5. Hujoel PP, Stott-Miller M. Retinal and gingival hemorrhaging and chronic hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care. Jan 2011;34(1):181-183.
  6. Hujoel P. Dietary carbohydrates and dental-systemic diseases. J Dent Res. Jun 2009;88(6):490-502.

David Grembowski

Research Interests

Dr. Grembowski teaches social determinants of population health and health program evaluation, and his evaluation interests address prevention and the performance of health care systems. His studies have examined efforts to improve quality by increasing access to care in integrated delivery systems; managed care and physician referrals; managed care and patient-physician relationships; cost-effectiveness of preventive services for older adults; fluoridation effects on oral health and dental demand; financial incentives and dentist adoption of preventive technologies; effects of dental insurance on dental demand, and the link between mother and child access to dental care. His research interests include the design and performance of health care systems; prevention; technology diffusion. His methodology interests are program evaluation and survey research.


  1. Lyles CR, Karter AJ, Young BA, Spigner C, Grembowski D, Schillinger D, Adler N. Patient-Reported Racial/Ethnic Healthcare Provider Discrimination and Medication Intensification in the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE). J Gen Intern Med. 2011 May 6. [Epub ahead of print]  PMID: 21547610 PubMed
  2. Bekemeier B, Grembowski D, Yang YR, Herting JR. Local Public Health Delivery of Maternal Child Health Services: Are Specific Activities Associated with Reductions in Black-White Mortality Disparities? Matern Child Health J. 2011 Apr 20. [Epub ahead of print]  PMID: 21505777 PubMed
  3. Grembowski D, Bekemeier B, Conrad D, Kreuter W. Are local health department expenditures related to racial disparities in mortality? Soc Sci Med. 2010 Dec;71(12):2057-65. Epub 2010 Sep 29.  PMID: 21050631 PubMed
  4. Grembowski D, Spiekerman C, Milgrom P. Linking mother access to dental care and child oral health. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2009 Oct;37(5):381-90. Epub 2009 Jul 22.  PMID: 19681985 PubMed
  5. Grembowski D, Spiekerman C, Milgrom P. Racial and ethnic differences in a regular source of dental care and the oral health, behaviors, beliefs and services of low-income mothers. Community Dent Health. 2009 Jun;26(2):69-76.  PMID: 19626737 PubMed

Susan E. Coldwell

Susan Coldwell earned a BA in psychology from Duke University in 1989 and received an MA (1990) and PhD (1994) in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania and the Monell Chemical Senses Center.
Developmental and physiological influences on taste preference and perception. Psychophysical measurement of pain, anxiety, and taste.
  1. Desai H, Smutzer G, Coldwell SE, and Griffith JW.  Validation of Edible Taste Strips for Identifying PROP Taste Recognition Thresholds, The Laryngoscope, June, 121(6): 1177-1183, 2011.
  2. Coolidge T, Hillstead MB, Farjo N, Weinstein P, and Coldwell SE.  Additional Psychometric Data for the Spanish Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, and Psychometric Data for a Spanish Version of the Revised Dental Beliefs Survey, BioMed Central Oral Health, 10:12, 2010.
  3. Milgrom P, Weinstein P, and Coldwell SE.  “Malnutrition as an Etiological Factor in Dental Caries Disparity” pp. 381-395, in M. Wilson, ed. Food Constituents and Oral Health: Current Status and Future Prospects, Woodhead Publishing Ltd., 2009.
  4. Mobley C, Marshall TA, Milgrom P, and Coldwell SE.  The Contribution of Dietary Factors to Dental Caries and Disparities in Caries, Academic Pediatrics, 9(6), pp. 410-414, 2009.
  5. Coldwell SE, Oswald TK, and Reed DR.  A Marker of Growth Differs between Adolescents with High versus Low Sugar Preference, Physiology and Behavior, 96, 574-580, 2009.

Whasun “Sun” Oh Chung

  • Gingival innate immunity
  • Titanate-metal complexes as novel antimicrobials in dentistry (US Patent registered in 2013)
  • Epigenetic regulations in periodontal health and disease
  • Biological effects of dental metal alloys in oral tissues
  • Role of T2R38 taste receptor in oral immunity
  1. Yin, L., and W.O. Chung.  2011.  Epigenetic regulation of gingival innate immune responses to oral bacteria.  Mucosal Immunology, 4(4):409-419.
  2. Chung, W.O., J. Wataha, D. Hobbs, J. An, J. Wong, C. Park, M. Elvington and B. Rutherford.  2011.  Peroxotitanate and monosodium metal-titanate compounds as inhibitors of bacterial growth.  Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 97(3):348-354.
  3. Chung, W.O., H. Dommisch and M.G. Rohani, in M. Fournier (Ed.), Perspectives on pattern recognition.  Nova Science Publishers, 2011.
  4. Chung, W.O., J.C. Wataha and D.T. Hobbs, in A. Mendez-Vilas (Ed.), Science against microbial pathogens: communicating current research and technological advances.  Formatex, 2011.
  5. Kretschmar, S., L. Yin, F.A. Roberts, R. London, T.T. Flemmig, D. Arushanov, K. Kaiyala and W.O. Chung.  2012.  Protease inhibitor levels in periodontal health and disease.  Journal of Periodontal Research, 47(2):228-35.
  6. Li, L., J. C. Wataha, C. Cate, H. Zhang, D. DiJulio and W.O. Chung.  2012.  Ni(II) alters the NFkB signaling pathway in monocytic cells.  Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 100(4):934-939.
  7. Wataha, J.C., J.L. Drury and W.O. Chung.  2013.  Nickel alloys in the oral environment.  Expert Review of Medical Devices 10(4):519–539.
  8. Chung, W.O.  2013.  Therapeutic potentials of antimicrobial peptides.  Bioanalysis and Biomedicine.
  9. Chen, Y-W., J.L. Drury, W.O. Chung, D.T. Hobbs and J.C. Wataha.  2014.  Titanates and titanate-metal compounds in biological contexts.  Advances in Biomaterials.

Donald Chi


  • AB, Government, Cornell University
  • DDS, Dentistry, University of Washington
  • PhD, Health Services Research, University of Iowa


  • Access to health care services
  • Pediatric health disparities
  • Neighborhoods and oral health outcomes
  • Social determinants of oral health

Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications

  1. Banks J, Hill C, Chi DL. Plan type and opioid prescriptions for children in Medicaid. Medical Care. Accepted.
  2. Lee JN, Scott JM, Chi DL. (2020). Oral health behaviors and dental caries in low-income children with special health care needs. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. Nov;30(6):749-757. PMID: 32306501. PMCID: none
  3. Chi DL, Coldwell S, Mancl L, Hopkins S, Senturia K, Randall C, Orr E, Cruz S. (2019). Alaska Native Children Do Not Prefer Sugar-Sweetened Fruit Drinks Compared to Sugar-Free Fruit Drinks. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Jun;119(6):984-990. PMID:30987919. PMCID: PMC6536342
  4. Chi DL, Rosenfeld M, Mancl L, Chung WO, Presland R, Sarvas E, Rothen M, McNamara S, Genatossio A, Virella-Lowell I, Milla C, Alkhateeb A. (2018). Age-Related Heterogeneity in Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in Individuals with Cystic Fibrosis Ages 6-20 years: A Pilot Study. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. Nov;17(6):747-759. PMID: 30005828. PMCID: PMC6589399
  5. Chi DL, Momany E, Mancl L, Lindgren S, Zinner S, Steinman K. (2016). Dental homes for children with autism: a longitudinal analysis of Iowa Medicaid's I-Smile Program. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. May;50(5):609-15. PMID: 26514624. PMCID: PMC4838561

Jeffrey E. Rubenstein


Dr. Jeffrey E. Rubenstein was awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree in Biological Sciences (1972) from Rutgers College, a D.M.D. from Tufts University School of Dental Medicine (1975), a General Practice Residency at the Lancaster Cleft Palate Institute and H.K. Cooper Center for Craniofacial Anomalies (1976) and a Certificate in Prosthodontics with emphasis on Maxillofacial Prosthodontics from M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute and a post doctoral M.S. from the University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston, Texas (1980)

Dr. Rubenstein was Professor and Director of the Maxillofacial Prosthetic Service. His research focus was that of developing cutting edge technological approaches toward the oro-facial rehabilitation of the patient with anatomical compromise in the region of the head and neck. Dr. Rubenstein along with the surgical/reconstructive team at the University of Washington Medical Center have collaborated to facilitate improved function and restoration of such patients with significant and severe compromise and insult to their oro-facial anatomy stemming from management of oro-facial cancer treatment, trauma or congenital disorders. He also has attempted to develop research projects for graduate students and undergraduate dental students stemming from his seminal research on interface fit of implant components and prostheses. Further, clinical trials on cutting edge techniques such as Procera® All Ceramic Restorations and computer generated implant abutments and frameworks has also been a focus of research activity. He has authored a number of publications in the periodic and text literature. As well he has actively contributed to University of Washington Continuing Education Programs, and lectured locally, nationally and internationally.

Dr. Rubenstein was a Fellow in the Washington State Society of Prosthodontists and served as it’s President in 2002.  He was also a member of the Academy of Osseointegration.  He was a Diplomate of the American Board of Prosthodontics, a Fellow in the American Academy of Maxillofacial Prosthetics as well as this organization’s President in 2007 and a Fellow in the American College of Prosthodontists. He was a Fellow in the Academy of Prosthodontics. He served on editorial review boards of the The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants and the International Journal of Prosthodontics. Dr. Rubenstein was listed in the inaugural edition of “Best Dentists in the United States, and in Seattle Metropolitan Magazine’s Listing of Seattle’s Top Dentists from 2010 to date.

Dr. Rubenstein had a wide array of interests which include hiking, cross country skiing, snow shoeing, travel especially to places he has never been, chess, reading, theater, classical music, and gardening to name a few.

Tar Chee Aw

[su_tab title=”Education/Training” disabled=”no” anchor=”” url=”” target=”blank” class=””]
Dr. Aw holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Science and Mathematics from the University of Bristol (1986), a Doctor of Dental Surgery degree (1990), an Advanced Education in General Dentistry certificate (1991), both from Northwestern University; a General Practice Residency certificate from Cornell University (1993),
[su_tab title=”Research Interests” disabled=”no” anchor=”” url=”” target=”blank” class=””]
Dr. Aw is an Associate Professor of the Division of Operative Dentistry in the Department of Restorative Dentistry. His research focus is primarily in laboratory evaluation and clinical trials of new restorative dental materials and techniques. His areas of interest include Esthetics, Implants, Biomaterials (resins, ceramics, cements, curing lights) and Technology (lasers, CAD/CAM, informatics, expert systems, neural networks, telemedicine).  He has authored numerous scientific research and clinical articles in various peer-reviewed journals.
[su_tab title=”Awards and Professional Service” disabled=”no” anchor=”” url=”” target=”blank” class=””]
Dr. Aw maintains a private faculty practice at the School of Dentistry and is a member of the American Dental Association, the Academy of Operative Dentistry, the Academy of General Dentistry and the International Association for Dental Research. Dr. Aw is a member of the SKCDS Strategic Planning Committee, and serves as a board member of the Washington Academy of General Dentistry. He is a member of the Editorial Board for the Operative Dentistry journal and a Reviewer for the Journal of the American Dental Association. He is a presenter at many scientific meetings and has held Continuing Dental Education courses locally, nationally, and internationally.  He has been interviewed and appeared in print, internet, radio and television.  In 2008, he was inducted as a Fellow into the International College of Dentists.
Dr. Aw’s personal interests include reading, computing, sports, music, travel, gardening and recreational activities with his family.

Frank Roberts


Regulation of inflammation in human adult periodontitis and other chronic inflammatory diseases, effects of chronic neutropenia on oral health, and biology and imaging of the dental implant.


  1. Schuler RF, Janakievski J, Hacker BM, O’Neal RB, Roberts FA.*  Effect of implant surface and grafting on implants placed into simulated extraction sockets: a histologic study in dogs.  Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2010 Sep-Oct;25(5):893-900.
  2. Roberts FA, Hacker BM, Oswald TK, Mourad PD, McInnes C.  Evaluation of the use of ultrasound within a power toothbrush to dislodge oral bacteria using an in vitro Streptococcus mutans biofilm model.  Am J Dent. 2010 Apr;23(2):65-9.
  3. Mourad PD, Roberts FA, McInnes C.  Synergistic use of ultrasound and sonic motion for removal of dental plaque bacteria.  Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2007 Jul;28(7):354-8.
  4. Smith, J., Wong, C.S., Salamonik, E.B., Hacker, B.M., McDonald, R.A., Mancl, L.A., Williams, B.J., Ibrahim, A., and Roberts, F.A.* 2006  Sonic Tooth Brushing Reduces Gingival Overgrowth in Renal Transplant Recipients.  Pediatr. Nephr. Nov;21(11):1753-9.
  5. Cai, S., Fatherazi, S., Presland, R., Belton, C., Roberts, F.A., Goodwin, P., Schubert, M., and Izutsu, K. 2006. Evidence that TRPC1 Contributes to Calcium-Induced Differentiation of Human Keratinocytes. Pflugers Arch. Apr;452(1):43-52.
  6. Wang IC, Roberts FA.* 2005  Adjunctive Periodontal Therapies.  Pract. Proced. Aesthet. Dent. May;17(4):245-6.
  7. Hacker, B.M. and Roberts, F.A.* 2005.  Genetics of Periodontal Disease Pathogenesis.  Pract. Proced. Aesthet. Dent. 17(2):97-102 (cover article).

Jeffrey Scott McLean


Dr. McLean’s research career began at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, WA (2000-2007). He then established a research program at the non-profit J. Craig Venter Institute in San Diego, CA in 2007. He moved to the University of Washington School of Dentistry in 2014 and is a tenured Associate Professor in the Department of Periodontics at the School of Dentistry with a joint appointment in Oral Health Sciences as well as an adjunct position in the Department of Microbiology at UW. For the past 21 years, his research has been primarily devoted to developing innovative methodologies, tools and new genomic based approaches to study microbial interactions within biofilm communities. Dr. McLean received his MSc at the University of Guelph in Canada and PhD at the University of Southern California. Currently, he is funded as a PI on multiple NIH awards to characterize the microbial processes that lead to oral diseases and maintain the health of the human oral microbiome.

The goal of the research in the McLean lab has been to gain an understanding for the molecular basis of bacteria-bacteria as well as bacteria-host interactions and further develop innovative methodologies, tools and integrated “omic” based approaches combined with wet-lab cultivation work on oral communities to ultimately translate this fundamental knowledge to the overall benefit of human health. His lab has extensive experience in next generation sequencing and combining omic approaches such as temporal resolved metatranscriptomic analysis (gene expression of all the microbes at once) in parallel with measuring global metabolites to reveal the homeostatic mechanisms of oral microbial communities. The lab tracks oral microbiome community assembly and maturation both in vitro and in vivo, capturing the temporal taxonomic and expression dynamics of key disease related species in direct association with the clinical host responses. Recent work of the team on the variation in human inflammatory responses to oral plaque bacteria leading to gum disease (gingivitis and chronic periodontitis) has links to overall systemic health.

McLean Research Lab Website

  • Latornell Travel Award
  • National Science and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) Industrial Postgraduate Scholarship
  • Outstanding Performance Award, Scientific contribution to the D.O.E. Genomes to Life Microbial Cell Project
  • Outstanding Performance Award, Dedication and recognition for contributions toward the Microbial Cell Dynamics Laboratory
  • 2 National Laboratory On the Spot Awards for outstanding performance
  • Outstanding Performance Award, Scientific contribution to an ACS article nominated one of top 4 articles of 2007.
*Corresponding Author #Co-first Author

  1. Shatha Bamashmous, Georgios A. Kotsakis, Kristopher A. Kerns, Brian G. Leroux, Camille Zenobia, Dandan Chen, Harsh M. Trivedi, Jeffrey S. McLean*, Richard P. Darveau. Human variation in gingival inflammation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) Jul 2021, 118 (27) e2012578118; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2012578118
  2. Lamont, E.I., Gadkari, A., Kerns, K.A., To, T.T., Daubert, D., Kotsakis, G., Bor, B., He, X., McLean, J.S.* Modified SHI medium supports growth of a disease-state subgingival polymicrobial community in vitro. Molecular Oral Microbiology. 2020 Nov 11. PubMed PMID: 33174294
  3. McLean, J.S.*, Bor, B., Kerns, K.A., Liu, Q., To, T.T., Solden, L., Hendrickson, E.L., Wrighton, K., Shi, W., and He, X. Acquisition and Adaptation of Ultra-small Parasitic Reduced Genome Bacteria to Mammalian Hosts. Cell Reports 32. 2020 July 21.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107939 PubMed PMID: 32698001
  4. Jonathan Y An, Kristopher A Kerns, Andrew Ouellette, Laura Robinson, H Douglas Morris, Catherine Kaczorowski, So-Il Park, Title Mekvanich, Alex Kang, Jeffrey S McLean, Timothy C Cox, Matt Kaeberlein. Rapamycin rejuvenates oral health in aging mice. eLife, 2020; 9 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.54318  BioProject Accession No: PRJEB35672
  5. Bor B, Bedree JK, Shi W, McLean JS, He X.  Saccharibacteria (TM7) in the Human Oral Microbiome. J Dent Res. 2019 Mar 20:22034519831671. doi: 10.1177/0022034519831671. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30894042.
  6. Jain, S., Chang, A.M., Singh, M., McLean, J.S., Coats, S.R., Kramer, R.W. & Darveau, R.P. Identification of PGN_1123 as the gene encoding lipid A deacylase, an enzyme required for Toll-like receptor 4 evasion, in Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Bacteriol (2019). 2019 Feb 19. pii: JB.00683-18. doi: 10.1128/JB.00683-18.
  7. Chang AM, Liu Q, Hajjar AM, Greer A, McLean JS, Darveau Toll-like receptor-2 and -4 responses regulate neutrophil infiltration into the junctional epithelium and significantly contribute to the composition of the oral microbiota. J Periodontol. 2019 Oct;90(10):1202-1212. doi: 10.1002/JPER.18-0719. Epub 2019 Jul 1. PubMed PMID: 31111967; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6791728
  8. Coats SR, Kantrong N, To TT, Jain S, Genco CA, McLean JS, Darveau RP.  The distinct immune-stimulatory capacities of Porphyromonas gingivalis strains 381 and ATCC 33277 are determined by the fimB allele and gingipain activity. Infect Immun. 2019 Sep 30;. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00319-19. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31570556.
  9. Baker JL, Hendrickson EL, Tang X, Lux R, He X, Edlund A, McLean JS, Shi W.  Klebsiella and Providencia emerge as lone survivors following long-term starvation of oral microbiota. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Apr 11. pii: 201820594. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1820594116. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30975748.
  10. Bor B, McLean JS, Foster KR, Cen L, To TT, Serrato-Guillen A, Dewhirst FE, Shi W, He X.  Rapid evolution of decreased host susceptibility drives a stable relationship between ultrasmall parasite TM7x and its bacterial host. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Nov 27;115(48):12277-12282. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1810625115. Epub 2018 Nov 15. PubMed PMID: 30442671
  11. Edlund, A., Yang, Y., Yooseph, S., He, X., Shi, W. & McLean, J.S*. Uncovering complex microbiome activities via metatranscriptomics during 24 hours of oral biofilm assembly and maturation. Microbiome 6, 217 (2018) PMCID: PMC6284299
  12. Bor Batbileg, Jeffrey S. McLean, Kevin R. Foster, Lujia Cen, Thao T. To, Alejandro Serrato-Guillen, Floyd E. Dewhirst, Wenyuan Shi and Xuesong He. Rapid evolution of decreased host susceptibility drives a stable relationship between ultra-small parasite TM7x and its bacterial host. 2018. PNAS In Press Online Week of Nov 12th 2018
  13. Edlund A, Garg N, Mohimani H,Gurevich A, He X, Shi W, Dorrestein PC, McLean JS. 2017. Metabolic fingerprints from the human oral microbiome reveal a vast knowledge gap of secreted small peptidic molecules.
  14. M. Agnello, L. Cen, N.C. Tran, W.Shi, J.S. McLean*, X. He* Arginine Improves pH Homeostasis via Metabolism and Microbiome Modulation. Journal of Dental Research First published date: May-09-2017   10.1177/0022034517707512
  15. To TT, Liu Q, Watling M, Darveau RP, Bumgarner RE, McLean JS. Genome sequence of low-passage clinical isolate Porphyromonas gingivalis MP4-504. Genome Announcements
  16. McLean, J. S.*, Q. Liu, B. Bor, J. K. Bedree, L. Cen, M. Watling, T. T. To, R. E. Bumgarner, X. He and W. Shi (2016). “Draft Genome Sequence of Actinomyces odontolyticus subsp. actinosynbacter Strain XH001, the Basibiont of an Oral TM7 Epibiont.” Genome Announc 4(1).
  17. Guo, L.#, J. S. McLean#, Y. Yang, R. Eckert, C. W. Kaplan, P. Kyme, O. Sheikh, B. Varnum, R. Lux, W. Shi and X. He (2015). “Precision-guided antimicrobial peptide as a targeted modulator of human microbial ecology.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. published ahead of print June 1, 2015, doi:10.1073/pnas.1506207112 Role: #Co-First Author.   OPEN ACCESS
  18. Anna Edlund, Youngik Yang, Shibu Yooseph, Adam P. Hall, Don D. Nguyen, Pieter C. Dorrestein, Karen E. Nelson, Xuesong He, Renate Lux, Wenyuan Shi, Jeffrey S. McLean* Meta-Omics Uncover Temporal Regulation of Pathways Across Oral Microbiome Genera During in vitro Sugar Metabolism. (2105)  International Society for Microbial Ecology Journal (ISME)    OPEN ACCESS
  19. He, Xuesong#, McLean, Jeffrey S.#*(co-first author, co-corresponding author), Edlund, Anna, Yooseph, Shibu, Hall, Adam P., Liu, Su-Yang, Dorrestein, Pieter C., Esquenazi, Eduardo, Hunter, Ryan C., Cheng, Genhong, Nelson, Karen E., Lux, Renate, Shi, Wenyuan. (2015) Cultivation of a human-associated TM7 phylotype reveals a reduced genome and epibiotic parasitic lifestyle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(1):244-249. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1419038112.   OPEN ACCESS
  20. McLean JS* (2014) Advancements toward a systems level understanding of the human oral microbiome. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 4:98. PMCID: MC4114298
  21. Lasken RS & McLean JS (2014) Recent advances in genomic DNA sequencing of microbial species from single cells. Nat Rev Genet 15(9):577-584. PMID: 25091868
  22. Edlund, A., Yang, Y., Hall, A., Guo, L., Lux, R., He, X., Nelson, K., Nealson, K., Yooseph, S., Shi, W. & McLean, JS*. (2013) An in vitro biofilm model system maintaining a highly reproducible species and metabolic diversity approaching that of the human oral microbiome. Microbiome 1, 2
  23. McLean, JS*, M.-J. Lombardo, M. G. Ziegler, M. Novotny, J. Yee-Greenbaum, J. H. Badger, G. Tesler, S. Nurk, V. Lesin, D. Brami, A. P. Hall, A. Edlund, L. Z. Allen, S. Durkin, S. Reed, F. Torriani, K. H. Nealson, P. A. Pevzner, R. Friedman, J. C. Venter and R. S. Lasken (2013). “Genome of the pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis recovered from a biofilm in a hospital sink using a high-throughput single-cell genomics platform.” Genome Research 23(5): 867-877. doi: 10.1101/gr.150433. PMCID: PMC3638142
  24. McLean, JS*, M.-J. Lombardo, J. H. Badger, A. Edlund, M. Novotny, J. Yee-Greenbaum, N. Vyahhi, A. P. Hall, Youngik Yang, C. L. Dupont, M. G. Ziegler, H. Chitsaz, A. E. Allen, S. Yooseph, G. Tesler, P. Pevzner, R. Friedman, K. H. Nealson, J. C. Venter and R. S. Lasken (2013). “Candidate phylum TM6 genome recovered from a hospital sink biofilm provides genomic insights into this uncultivated phylum.” PNAS. Jun 25;110(26):E2390-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1219809110 PMCID: PMC3696752
  25. McLean, JS *, S. J. Fansler, P. D. Majors, K. McAteer, L. Z. Allen, M. E. Shirtliff, R. Lux, W. Shi (2012) Identifying Low pH Active and Lactate-Utilizing Taxa within Oral Microbiome Communities from Healthy Children Using Stable Isotope Probing Techniques. PLoS ONE, 7 (3), e32219. PMCID:PMC3293899
  26. McLean, JS*, O. N. Ona, and P. D. Majors. 2008. Correlated biofilm imaging, transport and metabolism measurements via combined nuclear magnetic resonance and confocal microscopy. ISME J 2:121 – 31.
  1. Utter, D.R., He, X., Cavanaugh, C.M., McLean, J.S., Bor., B. The saccharibacterium TM7x elicits differential responses across its hosts range. ISME 2020 Aug 24. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41396-020-00736-6
  2. Lamont, E.I., Hendrickson, E.L., McLean, J.S., He, X., Bor, B. Complete Genome Sequence of Strain BB001, a Novel Epibiont Bacterium from the Candidate Phylum Saccharibacteria (TM7) ASM. 2020 Aug 20.  https://doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00810-20 PubMed PMID: 32816985
  3. Bor B, Collins AJ, Murugkar PP, Balasubramanian S, To TT, Hendrickson EL, Bedree JK, Bidlack FB, Johnston CD, Shi W, McLean JS, He X, Dewhirst FE. Insights Obtained by Culturing Saccharibacteria With Their Bacterial Hosts. J Dent Res. 2020 Feb 19.   https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034520905792.  PubMed PMID: 32075512.
  4. Bedree Joseph K, Batbileg Bor, Lujia Cen, Anna Edlund, Renate Lux, Jeffrey S. McLean, Wenyuan Shi and   Xuesong He. Quorum Sensing Modulates the Epibiotic-Parasitic Relationship between Actinomyces odontolyticus and its Saccharibacteria epibiont, a Nanosynbacter lyticus strain, TM7x. Microbiol. | doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02049
  5. Daubert D, Pozhitkov A, McLean J, Kotsakis G. Titanium as a modifier of the peri-implant microbiome structure. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2018;1–9.   https://doi.org/10.1111/cid.12676
  6. Baker, J.L., Lindsay, E.L., Faustoferri, R.C., To, T.T., Hendrickson, E.L., He, X., Shi, W., McLean, J.S. & Quivey, R.G., Jr. Characterization of the trehalose utilization operon in Streptococcus mutans reveals that the TreR transcriptional regulator is involved in stress response pathways and toxin production. J Bacteriol (2018). J Bacteriol. 2018 Apr 9. pii: JB.00057-18. doi: 10.1128/JB.00057-18.
  7. Shen, M., Y. Yang, W. Shen, L. Cen, S. McLean, W. Shi, S. Le and X. He (2018). “A Linear Plasmid-Like Prophage of Actinomyces odontolyticus Promotes Biofilm Assembly.” Appl Environ Microbiol 84(17).
  8. Torres PJ, Thompson J, McLean JS, Kelley ST, Edlund A. Discovery of a Novel Periodontal Disease-Associated Bacterium. Microb Ecol. 2018 Jun 2. doi: 10.1007/s00248-018-1200-6. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29860637.
  9. Shi, B., T. Wu, J. McLean, A. Edlund, Y. Young, X. He, H. Lv, X. Zhou, W. Shi, H. Li and R. Lux (2016). “The Denture-Associated Oral Microbiome in Health and Stomatitis.” mSphere 1(6).
  10. Harris, H. W., I. Sanchez-Andrea, S. McLean, E. C. Salas, W. Tran, M. Y. El-Naggar and K. H. Nealson (2017). “Redox Sensing within the Genus Shewanella.” Front Microbiol 8: 2568.
  11. Stanaway, I. B., J. C. Wallace, A. Shojaie, W. C. Griffith, S. Hong, C. S. Wilder, F. H. Green, J. Tsai, M. Knight, T. Workman, E. M. Vigoren, J. S. McLean, B. Thompson and E. M. Faustman (2017). “Human Oral Buccal Microbiomes Are Associated with Farmworker Status and Azinphos-Methyl Agricultural Pesticide Exposure.” Appl Environ Microbiol 83(2).
  12. Wang, M., et al. …. McLean, J. … P. C. Dorrestein and N. Bandeira (2016). “Sharing and community curation of mass spectrometry data with Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking.” Nat Biotechnol 34(8): 828-837. Zhong, C., A. Edlund, Y. Yang, J. S. McLean and S. Yooseph (2016). “Metagenome and Metatranscriptome Analyses Using Protein Family Profiles.” PLoS Comput Biol 12(7): e1004991
  13. Bor B, Poweleit N, Bois JS, Cen L, Bedree JK, Zhou ZH, Gunsalus RP, Lux R, McLean JS, He X, Shi W2015. Phenotypic and Physiological Characterization of the Epibiotic Interaction Between TM7x and Its Basibiont Actinomyces. Microb Ecol doi:10.1007/s00248-015-0711-7:1-13.   http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00248-015-0711-7#
  14. Dmitry Antipov, Anton Korobeynikov, Jeffrey S. McLean, and Pavel A. Pevzner. HYBRIDSPADES: an algorithm for hybrid assembly of short and long reads. Bioinformatics first published online November 20, 2015 doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btv688.
  15. Guo L, McLean JS, Lux R, He X, Shi W2015. The well-coordinated linkage between acidogenicity and aciduricity via insoluble glucans on the surface of Streptococcus mutans. Scientific Reports 5:18015.    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep18015
  16. He, X., McLean, J.S., Guo, L., Lux, R. & Shi, W.(2013). The social structure of a microbial community involved in colonization resistance. ISME J. Online 3 October 2013 doi:10.1038 /ismej.2013.172 PMCID: PMC3930314  https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2013.172
  17. Guo, L., W. Hu, X. He, R. Lux, J. McLean and W. Shi (2013). “Investigating Acid Production by Streptococcus mutans with a Surface-Displayed pH-Sensitive Green Fluorescent Protein.” PLoS ONE 8(2): e57182. PMID: 23468929 PMCID: PMC3585301   http://www.plosone.org/article/authors/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0057182
  18. Allen LZ, Ishoey T, Novotny MA, McLean JS, Lasken RS, et al. (2011) Single Virus Genomics: A New Tool for Virus Discovery. PLoS ONE 6(3): e17722. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017722 PMID: 21436882 PMCID: PMC3059205 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0017722
  19. Tian, Y.; He, X.; Torralba, M.; Yooseph, S.; Nelson, K. E.; Lux, R.; McLean, J. S.; Yu, G.; Shi, W. (2010) Using DGGE profiling to develop a novel culture medium suitable for oral microbial communities. Mol Oral Microbiol, 25 (5), 357-67. PMCID: PMC2951289   http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2041-1014.2010.00585.x/full
  20. McLean, J. S*.; Wanger G, Gorby YA, Wainstein M, McQuaid J, Ishii SI, Bretschger O, Beyenal H, Nealson KH (2010) Quantification of Electron Transfer Rates to a Solid Phase Electron Acceptor through the Stages of Biofilm Formation from Single Cells to Multicellular Communities. Environ Sci Technol 44: 2721-2727. PMID: 20199066  http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es903043p McLean, Jeff EST single cell es903043p
  21. McLean, J. S., Pinchuk, G. E., Geydebrekht, O. V., Bilskis, C. L., Zakrajsek, B. A., Hill, E. A., Saffarini, D. A., Romine, M. F., Gorby, Y. A., Fredrickson, J. K., and Beliaev, A. S., 2008. Oxygen-dependent autoaggregation in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Environ. Microbiol. Jul;10(7):1861-76. Epub 2008 Apr 10 doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01608.x PMID: 18412550  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01608.x/abstract PDF
  22. McLean, J. S., P. D. Majors, C. L. Reardon, C.L. Bilskis, S.B. Reed, M. F. Romine and J. K. Fredrickson. (2007). “Investigations of structure and metabolism within Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 biofilms.” Journal of Microbiological Methods. 74: 47-56. 10.1016/j.mimet.2008.02.015
  23. Pinchuk, G. E., C. Ammons, D. E. Culley, S. M. Li, J. S. McLean, M. F. Romine, K. H. Nealson, J. K. Fredrickson, and A. S. Beliaev. ( 2007). Utilization of DNA as a Sole Source of Phosphorus, Carbon, and Energy by Shewanella: Ecological and Physiological Implications for Dissimilatory Metal Reduction. Appl Environ Microbiol. 74(4):1198-208.
  24. Gorby YA, S Yanina, JS McLean, KM Rosso, DM Moyles, A Dohnalkova, TJ Beveridge, I Chang, BH Kim, KS Kim, DE Culley, SB Reed, MF Romine, D Saffarini, EA Hill, L Shi, DA Elias, DW Kennedy, GE Pinchuk, K Watanabe, S Ishii, B Logan, KH Nealson, and JK Fredrickson. (2006). “Electrically conductive bacterial nanowires produced by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 and other microorganisms.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(30):11358-11363.
  25. McLean JS, Beveridge TJ. (2001). Chromate reduction by a pseudomonad isolated from a site contaminated with chromated copper arsenate. Appl Environ Microbiol. Mar; 67(3):1076-84.
  26. McLean JS, Beveridge TJ, Phipps D. (2000). Isolation and characterization of a chromium-reducing bacterium from a chromated copper arsenate-contaminated site. Environ Microbiol. Dec; 2(6):611-9.
  1. Majors, P.D. and J.S. McLean. (2009). “Dynamic Metabolism Studies of Live Bacterial Films.” in Magnetic Resonance Microscopy. S. L. Codd and J. D. Seymour. Weinheim, Wiley-VCH.   http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9783527626052 NLM Unique ID: 101511650
  2. McLean J.S., Lee JU, and Beveridge T.J.( 2001). Interactions of Bacteria and Environmental Metals, Fine-Grained Mineral Development and Bioremediation Strategies. In Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms and Their Impact on the Terrestrial Environment. (Ed. PM Huang) IUPAC Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems. John Wiley and Sons. Ltd., UK.
  3. Mclean, J., T. Beveridge and D. Phipps. (1999) Chromate removal from contaminated groundwater using indigenous bacteria. In Bioremediation of Metals and Inorganic Compounds (Eds. A Leeson and B.C. Alleman). Proceedings of the In Situ and On Site Bioremediation . Fifth International Symposium. April 19-22, , San Diego. California, Battelle Press

Richard Darveau

Bacteria/host interactions, LPS biochemistry, Host inflammatory response.
  1. Coats SR, Berezow AB, To TT, Jain S, Bainbridge BW, Banani KP, Darveau RP. 2011 The lipid A phosphate position determines differential host toll-like receptor 4 responses to phylogenetically related symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria. Infect Immun. Jan;79(1):203-10.
  2. Curtis MA, Percival RS, Devine D, Darveau RP, Coats SR, Rangarajan M, Tarelli E, Marsh PD. 2011  Temperature-Dependent Modulation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipid A Structure and Interaction with the Innate Host Defenses. Infect Immun. Mar;79(3):1187-93.
  3. Herath TD, Wang Y, Seneviratne CJ, Lu Q, Darveau RP, Wang CY, Jin L. 2011 Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide lipid A heterogeneity differentially modulates the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in human gingival fibroblasts.  J Clin Periodontol. Aug;38(8):694-701.
  4. Hajishengallis, G. , Liang,S, Payne,M.A., Hashim, A., Jotwani,R., Eskan,M.A., McIntosh, M.L., Alsam,A., Kirkwood,K.L. Lambris,J.D., Darveau,R.P., and Curtis, M.A.  2011  A Low-Abundance Biofilm Species Orchestrates Inflammatory Periodontal Disease through the Commensal Microbiota and the Complement Pathway Cell Host Microbe. Oct 25.
  5. Darveau, R.P. 2009 The Oral Microbial Consortium’s Interaction  with the Periodontal Innate Defense System. DNA Cell Biol. 2009 Aug;28(8):389-95.
  6. Darveau, R.P. 2010 Periodontitis: a polymicrobial bacterially induced disruption of host homeostasis. Nat Rev Microbiol. Jun 1;8(7):481-490
  7. Jain S, Darveau RP. 2010 Contribution of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide to periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 2010 Oct;54(1):53-70.
  8. Berezow AB, Darveau RP. 2011 Microbial shift and periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. Feb;55(1):36-47
  9. CurtisM.A.1, Zenobia, C2, and Richard P. Darveau2. 2011 The relationship of the oral microbiotia to periodontal health and disease. Cell Host Microbe. Oct 4;10(4):302-6.

Sandra Bordin

Pre-doctoral training in the Classics, Doctoral in Biological Sciences and Post-doctoral in Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Endocrinology at major Universities in Europe (Italy and Holland) and US (UW, Seattle).

  • Appointed Member of the IADR/Glaxo/Smith/Kline Committee, Award for Innovation in Oral Care
  • Editorial Board of the Revista Mexicana de Odontologia, the Open Dentistry Journal, and Dental Informatics Online Community
  • Omicron Kappa Upsilon (OKU) Dental Fraternity, Sigma Sigma Chapter
  • Elected Member (3rd term) to the UW Faculty Senate
  • US Licensed Medical Interpreter
  • Seattle Art Museum: certified volunteer for art education
Broad Research Interests encompass the host’s immune response during periodontal tissue disorders, with focus on the biology of peri-implantitis. Objective: to conduct clinical trials for the in situ application of non-invasive optical coherence tomography imaging for screening in real time peri-implant inflammatory conditions before clinical signs reveal the destructive processes. The method can save osseointegrated implants by allowing early treatment of the complication.

  1. Verardi S, Quaranta M, Bordin S. 2011. Peri-implantitis fibroblasts respond to host immune factor C1q. J Periodont Res 46:134-140.
  2. Bordin S, Flemmig TF, Verardi S. 2009. Role of fibroblast populations in peri-implantitis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 24:187-192.
  3. Bordin S, Narayanan AS, Robertson PB. 2008. Roy C Page: Leader in Collaborative and Multidisciplinary Research in Periodontology. J Dent Res 87:293-5.
  4. Verardi S, Bordin S. 2008. Management of Periodontal Inflammation JPH 2:1-3

Douglas Ramsay

Doug was born and raised in Pennsylvania where he received a B.A. in psychology from Franklin & Marshall College in 1979 and a D.M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1983.  He came to the UW in 1983 as a senior fellow and in 1985 entered the UW’s NIH-funded Dentist-Scientist Training Program, which supported his doctoral studies in psychology (PhD, 1988) and specialty training in orthodontics (MSD, 1990).  He joined the UW faculty in 1990 and is currently Chair of the Department of Oral Health Sciences and the Associate Dean for Research and Faculty in the School of Dentistry.  

Doug is a professor of Orthodontics, Oral Health Sciences, Orthodontics, and Pediatric Dentistry.  In addition to receiving numerous NIH research grants, he was also the recipient of a Research Career Development Award from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR).  Doug is a Diplomate of the American Board of Orthodontics and a member of the Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontists.  Doug is the Director of the UW’s Regional Clinical Dental Research Center and is currently the Director of the T90/R90 NIDCR-supported institutional training grant at the UW School of Dentistry.  Doug has directed courses in the predoctoral dental and graduate dental specialty programs, supervised patient care in the graduate orthodontics clinic, and been Chair of numerous thesis committees.

Dr. Ramsay teaches and supervises students at the undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral levels. Each year he directs a didactic seminar for the graduate students in Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics and provides guest lectures in other courses. As a board-certified orthodontist, he teaches and supervises patient care in the graduate orthodontics clinic throughout the year.

Dr. Ramsay’s research interests are broad and he has a record of conducting both basic and clinical research. A primary research interest of his is in the area of behavioral pharmacology with a focus on the mechanisms underlying the development of drug tolerance. His scientific interests include: mechanisms of drug tolerance, behavioral pharmacology, patient compliance, learning and memory, regulatory behavior, tooth circulation, addictive disorders, pain (mechanisms and psychophysics).

  1. Ramsay, D.S., Kaiyala, K.J and Woods, S.C. Individual Differences in Biological Regulation: Predicting Vulnerability to Drug Addiction, Obesity, and Other Dysregulatory Disorders.  Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 28, 388–403, 2020. [doi:10.1037/pha0000371].
  2. Ramsay, D.S. and Woods, S.C. Physiological regulation: How it really works.  Cell Metabolism, 24, 361-364, 2016.
  3. Ramsay, D.S., Rothen, M., Scott, J., and Cunha-Cruz, J; on behalf of the Northwest PRECEDENT network.  Tooth wear and the role of salivary measures in general practice patients.  Clinical Oral Investigations, 19, 85-95, 2015.
  4. Ramsay, D.S., Al-Noori, S., Shao, J., Leroux, B.G. and Woods, S.C., Kaiyala, K.J. Predicting addictive vulnerability: Individual differences in initial responding to a drug’s pharmacological effects.  PLoS ONE, 10(4), e0124740-e0124740, 2015. [doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124740].
  5. Ramsay, D.S. and Woods, S.C.  Clarifying the roles of homeostasis and allostasis in physiological regulation.  Psychological Review, 121 , 225-247, 2014.
  6. Ramsay, D.S., Woods, S.C. and Kaiyala, K.J.  Repeated nitrous oxide exposure in rats causes a thermoregulatory sign-reversal with concurrent activation of opposing thermoregulatory effectors.  Temperature [Special Issue on Temperature and Toxicology with Focus on Drugs of Abuse], 1, 257-267, 2014.
  7. Ramsay, D.S., Woods, S.C. and Kaiyala, K.J.  Drug-induced regulatory overcompensation has motivational consequences: Implications for homeostatic and allostatic models of drug addiction.  Temperature [Special Issue on Temperature and Toxicology with Focus on Drugs of Abuse], 1, 248-256, 2014.
  8. Ramsay, D.S.  Patient compliance with oral hygiene regimens:  A behavioural self-regulation analysis with implications for technology.  International Dental Journal, 50, 304-311, 2000.
  9. Ramsay, D.S. and Woods, S.C.  Biological consequences of a drug administration:  Implications for acute and chronic tolerance.  Psychological Review, 104, 170-193, 1997.
  10. Ramsay, D.S., Årtun, J., and Martinen, S.S.  Reliability of pulpal blood flow measurements utilizing laser Doppler flowmetry.  Journal of Dental Research, 70, 1427-1430, 1991.

A complete list of Dr. Ramsay’s published work can be found in MyBibliography

Zi-Jun Liu


DDS in 1983, Nanjing Medical University, China, MS in Oral Physiology in 1986, The 4th Military Medical University, China, PhD in Oral Physiology in 1991, Osaka University, Japan.


Biology of craniofacial skeletons and musculatures (growth, remodeling, adaptation and biomechanics). Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) function and and functional disorders (TMD). Mechanism of orthodontic tooth movements and material properties of periodontal ligaments.


(*: Correspondence author, in chronological order)
Peer-Reviewed Papers

1. Liu Z.J.* and Wang H.Y.: A comparative study of sound patterns and arthrograms in the cases with TMJ disorders. J. Practical Stomatology, 2:36-40, 1986

2. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y., Pu W.Y. and Yan C.Y.: EMG study on superior and inferior bellies of lateral pterygoid muscle in the normal adults and its clinical value. J. Practical Stomatology, 2:104-108, 1986

3. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y. and Pu W.Y.: A comparative study on EMG of lateral pterygoid muscle and TMJ arthrography in the TMJ sounds patients. J. Practical Stomatology, 2:227-231, 1986

4. Wang H.Y., Shi J.Z., Yan C.Y. and Liu Z.J.: Properties of bite force in the normal adults. J. Practical Stomatology, 3:67-71, 1987

5. Liu Z.J.* and Wang H.Y.: TMJ disc displacement relative to condylar position and abnormality of mandibular movements. J. Comprehensive Stomatology, 3:136-139, 1987

6. Liu Z.J.* and Wang H.Y.: A clinical and radiological study in cases with TMJDS sounds. West China J. Stomatology, 5:239-243, 1987

7. Wang H.Y.*, Liu Z.J., Wang M.Q., Jiao G.L., Zhen Y.G. and Yang Z.G.: Design and application of 8-channel electromyograph used in oro-maxillofacial region. J. Practical Stomatology, 4:114-118, 1988.

8. Liu Z.J.* and Wang H.Y.: Comprehensive study on occlusion, EMG and radiography in cases with TMJ clickings. J. Chinese Stomatology, 23:276-278, 1988

9. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y. and Pu W.Y.: Clinical and radiological observation on treatment of TMJ internal derangement by repositioning splint: A follow-up study by arthrography. J. Chinese Stomatology, 24:91-94, 1989

10. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y. and Pu W.Y.: A comparative electromyographic study of the lateral pterygoid muscle and arthrography in patients with temporomandibular joint disturbance syndrome sounds. J. Prosthet Dent., 62:229-233, 1989

11. Gu G.M., Niu X.F., Ye X.Y., Li X.H. and Liu Z.J.*: A comparative study on mandibular position and electromyography of masticatory muscles in edentulous cases before and after complete denture prosthesis. J. Practical Stomatology, 6:111-114, 1990

12. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y., Liu D.D. and Li G.P.: A computer-aid method of calculating TMJ space and its clinical application. J. Stomatology, 10:131-133, 1990

13. Liu Z.J.*: Coordination and modification of cortically induced rhythmic jaw and tongue movements in the rabbit. J. Osaka University Dental Society, 36:39-52, 1991

14. Xu R.S., Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y. and Yan C.Y.: Characteristics of condylar position and intercuspal position in the cases with Angle’s II and III malocclusion. West China J. Stomatology, 11:252-254, 1993

15. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y., Masuda Y. and Morimoto T.: Cinefluororadiographic observation of cortically induced rhythmic movements of mandible, tongue and hyoid. West China J. Stomatology, 11:23-28, 1993

16. Liu Z.J., Masuda Y., Inoue T.*, Fuchihata M., Sumida A., Takata K. and Morimoto T.*: Coordination of cortically induced rhythmic jaw and tongue movements in the rabbit. J. Neurophysiol., 69:569-584, 1993

17. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y., Masuda Y. and Morimoto T.: A comparative study between cortically induced fictive mastication and actual mastication in acute and chronic rabbits. J. Chinese Stomatology, 29:305-308, 1994.

18. Xu R.S.*, Liu Z.J., Wang H.Y., Lin Z. and He M.Y.: A study of the condyle position in Angle’s I, II, III malocclusion. China J. Orthodontics, 2:61-63, 1995

19. Tang W.Z., Tang L., Jin J. and Liu Z.J.*: Physiological properties of oral sensation. J. Practical Stomatology, 12:28-30, 1996

20. Yasui S., Nokubi T.*, Nakamura K., Nagashima T., Yoshida M., Yoyoshima M., Liu Z.J., Yao Y.L. and Wang H.Y.: Influences of the position of occlusal support on the perception of mandibular position. J. Japan Prosthodontic Society, 40:117-121, 1996

21. Liu Z.J.*, Kubata S., Yamagata Y., Suenaga S., Noikura T. and Ito G.: Quantitative and multidimensional evaluation of symptoms and correlative factors for temporomandibular disorders in clinical and subclinical subjects. J. Japan Orthodontic Society, 55:445-460, 1996

22. Liu Z.J.*, Ikeda K., Harada Y., Kasahara Y. and Ito G.: Functional properties of jaw and tongue muscles in rats fed a liquid diet after being weaned. J. Dent. Res., 77: 366-376, 1998

23. Liu Z.J.*, Yamagata Y., Kasahara Y. and Ito G.: Electromyographic examination of jaw muscles in relation to symptoms and occlusion of patients with temporomandibular joint disorders. J.Oral Rehabil., 26: 33-47,1999.

24. Ikeda K.*, Liu Z.J. and Ito G.: Development of alternative activity of masseter and anterior digastrics in rats fed by kneaded diet. Dentistry in Japan, 35: 81-83, 1999

25. Liu Z.J.* and Herring S.W.: Bone surface strains and internal bony pressures at the jaw joint during masticatory muscle contraction. Arch. Oral Biol., 45:95-112, 2000

26. Liu Z.J.*, Yamagata Y., Kuroe K., Suenaga S., Noikura K. and Ito G.: Morphological and positional assessments of TMJ components and lateral pterygoid muscle in relation to symptoms and occlusion of patients with temporomandibular disorders. J. Oral Rehabil., 27:860-874, 2000

27. Liu Z.J.* and Herring S.W.: Masticatory strains on osseous and ligamentous components of the jaw joint in miniature pigs. J. Orofac. Pain, 14:265-278, 2000

28. Herring S.W*. and Liu Z.J.: Loading of the TMJ: Anatomical and in vivo evidence from the bones Cells Tissues Organs, 169: 193-200, 2001

29. Herring S.W.*, Rafferty K.L., Liu Z.J. and Marshall C.D.: Jaw muscles and the skull in mammals: The biomechanics of mastication. J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 131:207-219, 2001

30. Sun Z.*, Liu Z.J. and Herring S.W.: Movement of TMJ tissue during mastication and passive manipulation: study in miniature pigs. Arch. Oral Biol., 47:293-305, 2002

31. Herring S.W.*, Decker J.D., Liu Z.J. and Ma T.: Temporomandibular joint in miniature pigs: Anatomy, cell replication, and relation to loading. Anat. Rec. 266:152-166, 2002

32. Connolly J.P.*, Liu Z.J, Wang L.L., Whelan M.F., Huang G.J., Williams J.K. and King G.J. A custom mandibular distraction device for the rat. J. Craniofac. Surg. 13:445-449, 2002

33. Gu G.M.*, Yoshida R., Liu Z.J., Hirose T. and Ito G.: Muscle fiber composition and electromyographic features of cervical muscles following prolonged head extension in growing rats. Eur. J. Orthod. 25:20-33, 2003

34. Liu Z.J.*, King G.J., Herring S.W. and Whelan M.F.: Alterations of morphology andmicrodensity in the Condyle following mandibular osteodistraction in the rat. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 61:918-927, 2003

35. King G.J.*, Liu Z.J., Wang L.L., Chiu I.Y. Whelan M.F.and Huang G.J.: Effect of distraction rate and consolidation period on bone density in mandibular osteodistraction rats. Arch. Oral Biol. 48:299-308, 2003

36. Baskin C.R.*, Liu Z.J., King G.J. and Maggio-Price L.: Vascular leak syndrome in Sprague-Dawley rats in mandibular distraction osteogenesis study. Comp. Med. 53:207-212, 2003.

37. Liu Z. J.*, Green J.R., Moore C.A. and Herring S.W.: Time series analysis of jaw muscle contraction and tissue deformation during mastication in miniature pigs. J. Oral Rehabil. 31:7-17, 2004

38. Liu Z.J.*, Anderson M.W., Gu G.M. and King G.J.: Apoptosis in the regenerate produced by mandibular osteodistraction in skeleton mature rats. J. Orthod. Craniofac. Res. 8:41-51, 2005.

39. Liu Z.J.*, King, G.J. Gu G.M., Shin J.Y and D.R. Stewart.: Does human relaxin accelerate orthodontic tooth movement in rats? Ann NY Acad Sci 1041:388-394, 2005.

40. Shin J.Y., Liu Z.J.* and King G.J,: Trabecular organization of mandibular osteodistraction in growing and maturing rats. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 63:77-86, 2005.

41. Williams B.E., King G. J., Liu Z.J.* and Rafferty K.L.: Dynamic histomorphometric analysis of regenerate osteogenesis following mandibular distraction in the rat. Arch. Oral Biol. 50:497-508, 2005.

42. Liu Z.J.*, King G.J and Herring S.W.: Condylar mineralization following mandibular distraction osteogenesis in rapidly and slowly growing rats. J. Dent. Res. 85: 653-657, 2006.

43. Okafuji N., Liu Z.J.* and King G.J.: Assessment of cell proliferation during mandibular osteodistraction in the mature rat. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop. 130:612-621, 2006.

44. Liu Z.J.*, Kayalioglu M., Shcherbatyy V. and Seifi A.: Tongue deformation, jaw movement and muscle activity during mastication in pigs. Arch. Oral Biol. 52:309-312, 2007.

45. Madan M.S., Liu Z.J.*, Gu G.M. and King G.J.: Effects of human relaxin on orthodontic tooth movement and periodontal ligaments in rats. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop. 131: 8e1-10, 2007.

46. Kayalioglu M., Shcherbatyy V. Seifi A. and Liu Z.J.*: Roles of tongue intrinsic and extrinsic muscles in feeding: Electromyographic study in pigs. Arch. Oral Biol. 52:786-796, 2007.

47. Ross C.F.*, Dharia R., Herring S.W., Hylander W.L., Liu Z.J., Rafferty K.L., Ravosa M.J. and Willaims S.H.: Modulation of mandibular corpus bone strain in mammals during mastication. J. Exp. Biol. 210:1046-63, 2007.

48. Shcherbatyy V. and Liu Z.J.*: Internal kinematics of the tongue during feeding in pigs. Anat. Rec. 290:128 1299, 2007.

49. Liu Z.J.*, Shcherbatyy V. and Perkins J.A.: Functional loads of the tongue and consequence of the volume reduction. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 66(7):1351-1361, 2008,

50. Liu Z.J.*, Yamamura B., Shcherbatyy V. and Green J.R.: Regional volumetric changes of the tongue during mastication in pigs. J. Oral Rehabil. 35(8):604-612, 2008.

51. Shcherbatyy V., Perkins J.A. and Liu Z.J.*: Internal Kinematics of the Tongue following Volume Reduction. Anat. Rec. 291(7):886-893, 2008.

52. Liu Z.J.*, Shcherbatyy V, Gu G.M. and Perkins J.A.: Effects of tongue body volume reduction on craniofacial growth: A longitudinal study on orofacial skeletons and dental arches. Arch. Oral Biol. 53:991-1001, 2008.

53. Perkins J.A.*, Shcherbatyy V. and Liu Z.J.: Morphologic and histologic outcomes of tongue reduction surgery in an animal model. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. 139:291-297, 2008.

54. Liu Z.J.*, Shcherbatyy V., Kayalioglu M. and Seifi A.: Internal kinematics of the tongue in relation to muscle activity and jaw movement during feeding. J. Oral. Rehabil. 36:660-674, 2009.

55. Yousefzadeh F., Shcherbatyy V., King G.J., Huang G.J. and Liu Z.J*: A cephalometric and electromyographic study in patients of East-African ethnicity with and without anterior open bite. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop. 137:236-246, 2010.

56. Ye W.M, Abu A.F and Liu Z.J*: Assessment of cell proliferation and muscular structure following surgical tongue volume reduction in pigs. Cell Proliferation, 43(6): 562-572, 2010.

57. Herring S.W., Rafferty K.L., Liu Z.J. and Lemme M.: Mastication and the postorbital ligament: Dynamic strain in soft tissues. Integrative & Comparative Biology, 51:297-306, 2011.

58. Rafferty K.L., Liu Z.J., Ye, M., Alfonso L.N., Nguyen T.T., Salamati A., Herrin S.W*: Botulinum toxin in masticatory muscles: Short- and long-term effects on muscle, bone, and craniofacial function in adult rabbits. Bone, 50(3):551-562, 2012.

59. Navarrete A.L., Rafferty KL, Liu Z.J., Ye W, Herring S.W.: Botulinum neurotoxin type A in the masseter muscle: Effects on incisor eruption in rabbits. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop. 143:499-506, 2013.

60. Ye W.M, Duan Y.Z. and Liu Z.J*: Alteration of functional loads after tongue volume reduction. J. Craniofac. Orthod Res, 16:234-245 2013.

Book Chapters

1. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y., Masuda Y. and Morimoto T.: Coordination of jaw, tongue and hyoid muscles during drinking and mastication in the awake rabbit. In: Brain and Oral Function – Oral Motor Function and Dysfunction, T. Morimoto, T. Matsuya and K. Takada, Eds.,The Netherlands: Elsevier Science B.V., pp. 597-600, 1995

2. Morimoto T.*, Nakamura O., Ogata K., Liu Z.J., Matsuo R., Inoue T., Masuda Y., Saito O., Mizuno J. and Kato K.: Autoregulation of masticatory force in the anesthetized rabbit. In: Brain and Oral Function – Oral Motor Function and Dysfunction, T. Morimoto, T. Matsuya and K. Takata Eds., The Netherlands: Elsevier Science B.V., pp.115-124, 1995

3. Ikeda K.*, Liu Z.J., Harada S., Kasahara Y. and Ito G.: Alternative activities of masseter and anterior digastrics in growing rats fed a kneaded diet. In: Neurobiology of Mastication – from Molecular to System Approach, Y. Nakamura and B.J. Sessle, ed. The Netherlands: Elsevier Science B.V., pp. 379-381, 1999.

4. Herring S.W.*, Sun Z., Egbert M.A., Rafferty K.L. and Liu Z.J.: Is distraction the only motion permitted at the osteotomy site? Fixation and stability of the pig mandible. In: Biological Mechanisms of Tooth Movement & Craniofacial Adaptation, ed. Z. Davidovotch and J. Mah, Harvard Soc. Adv. Orthodontics, pp. 31-38, 2004.

5. Liu Z.J.*, King G.J. and Herring S.W.: Why do we fail to achieve predicted lengthening in mandibular osteodistraction? Observations on condylar morphology and microdensity in growing and maturing rats. In: Biological Mechanisms of Tooth Movement & Craniofacial Adaptation, ed. Z. Davidovitch and J. Mah, Harvard Soc. Adv. Orthodontics, pp. 39-51, 2004.

6. Liu Z.J.*, Shcherbatyy V., Kayalioglu M. and Seifi A.: Dimensional changes of the tongue during activation of hypoglossal nerves and contraction of tongue muscles. In: Biological Mechanisms of Tooth Eruption, Resorption, and Movement, ed. Z. Davidovitch and J. Mah, Harvard Soc. Adv. Orthodontics, pp. 305-312, 2006.

7. Pavlin D., Hulme R.D., King G.J., Liu Z.J., Gluhak-Heinrich J.: Regulation of osteopontin in para-surgical bone cell following mandibular distraction osteogenesis in rats. In: Biological Mechanisms of Tooth Eruption, Resorption, and Movement, ed. Z. Davidovitch and J. Mah, Harvard Soc. Adv. Orthodontics, pp. 429-438, 2006.

8. Herring S.W.*, Rafferty L.K, Liu Z.J. and Sun Z.: A nonprimate model for the fused symphysis: in vivo studies in the pig. Vinyard, C.J., Ravosa, M.J., and C.E. Wall, eds. Primate Craniofacial Function and Biology; Series: Developments in Primatology Series. New York, Springer, 2008, p19-36.

9. Liu Z.J:* Effects of Surgical Tongue Volume Reduction: Outcome Measure on Function and Growth. In: Surgical Enhancement of Orthodontic Treatment. Monograph 47, Craniofacial Growth Series, ed. McNamara JA Jr, and Kapila SD. Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry and Center for Human Growth and Development, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp. 283-308, 2010.

10. Herring S.W.*, Li Y.M., Liu Z.J., Popowics T.E., Rafferty K.L., and Wang S.L.: Oral Biology and Dental Models. In: The Minipigs in Biomedical Research. ed. PA. McAnulty, AD. Dayan, N-C. Ganderup, and KL. Hastings, CRC, Taylor & Francis Group, London, New York. p. 491-516, 2011.

11. Liu Z. J.: Tongue musculatureResponse to neuromuscular diseases and specific pathologies. In: Craniofacial Muscles: A new Framework for Understanding the Effector Side of Craniofacial Muscle Control. Eds. LK Mcloon and F Andrate. Springer, New York, p. 241-262, 2013.