Genetic underpinnings of orofacial cleft; Transcriptional regulatory networks governing cellular differentiation of superficial epithelia and melanocytes; Cell fate determination.
Genetic underpinnings of orofacial cleft; Transcriptional regulatory networks governing cellular differentiation of superficial epithelia and melanocytes; Cell fate determination.
Dr. Arce-McShane is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Oral Health Sciences. She received her Bachelor of Science in Physical Therapy from the University of the Philippines, Master of Arts in Motor Learning from Columbia University in New York, and PhD in Neuroscience from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel. She did her postdoctoral work at the University of Chicago and was a Research Assistant Professor prior to joining the School of Dentistry in November 2021.
Dr. Arce-McShane is a neuroscientist and her research focuses on the principles of cortical and biomechanical control of oral sensorimotor behavior (such as feeding, breathing and speech), and how these are affected by learning, aging, and disease. Her previous background as a physical therapist with strong concentrations in movement science, neurological and cognitive rehabilitation has given her a keen awareness of patients’ problems and needs. Her basic science research draws from her clinical experience and is aimed towards innovative research that directly impacts the evaluation and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, sensorimotor disorders, restoration of sensory feedback in brain-machine interfaces, and age-related dementias.
Her lab uses a multidisciplinary approach to understand the interplay between sensation and movement using converging evidence from psychophysics, biomechanics, neurophysiology, and computational modeling. Her methods include recording neural activity from chronically-implanted microelectrode arrays in multiple regions of the cerebral cortex simultaneous with recording the movements of the tongue and the mandible using high-resolution biplanar radiography and applying computational models to understand the principles of sensorimotor control.
Dr. An received his Bachelor of Science in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology from the University of Washington. He completed a dual D.D.S (2015) and Ph.D (2019) from the University of Washington School of Dentistry. He is a UW Magnuson Scholar, ARCS Foundation Fellow, IADR/AADR Hatton Competition winner, and won the inaugural IADR Heraeus Award and ADA/Dentsply Sirona Research Award for Dual Degree Candidates.
Dr. An is currently an Assistant Professor of Oral Health Sciences and Faculty in the Healthy Aging and Longevity Institute. He also serves as the Assistant Graduate Program Director of Oral Health Sciences. Dr. An currently directs courses in the departments of Oral Health Sciences and the Department of Lab Medicine and Pathology.
Dr. An’s research interests lie at the intersection of Geroscience (aging biology) and Oral Biology. His primary research focuses on understand the basic biological mechanisms of aging in the context of oral health and disease. His laboratory also evaluates and targets specific hallmarks of aging in the oral cavity to one day translate these discoveries to help extend the oral healthspan in humans.
I am an Acting Assistant Professor in the Department of Oral Health Sciences at the University of Washington School of Dentistry. My program of research applies behavioral science, especially health psychology, to dentistry and dental public health. The overall goals of this work are to improve dental care delivery and oral health outcomes, with a major aim to reduce health disparities.
I have specific research interests in: (1) psychological processes involved in, and social/behavioral interventions for, dental/orofacial pain, dental treatment-seeking behavior, and oral health behavior; (2) the etiology, prevention, and amelioration of dental treatment avoidance, particularly as a function of dental care-related fear/anxiety; and (3) the dissemination of knowledge on these topics to healthcare professionals, and the implementation of evidence-based practice in the oral health arena. As a clinical psychologist, I treat patients in the oral medicine clinic at the University of Washington School of Dentistry.
I also engage in teaching—primarily for dental and medical students/residents—on topics such as behavioral science, clinical health psychology, health behavior change, healthcare-related fear/anxiety, pain management, pediatric behavior guidance, integrated care, Motivational Interviewing, interprofessional and patient-provider communication, and cultural humility.
My research applies social and behavioral science to dentistry. To guide my work, I draw on training in experimental psychopathology, behavioral genetics, clinical health psychology, dissemination and implementation science, public health, and translational science. Three specific areas of scientific inquiry currently characterize my multilevel, transdisciplinary program of research.
Parkinson’s disease (PD), the most common serious movement disorder afflicting millions of Americans, is diagnosed when patients present with cardinal parkinsonian signs (bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and postural instability as depicted in the diagram on the left) and show a favorable responsiveness to levodopa or dopamine (DA) agonists.
Pathological hallmarks of PD are loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) with resultant depletion of DA and the presence of Lewy bodies in the remaining neurons (indicated by an arrow in the photo micrograph). Despite decades of extensive research, there is currently still no cure for the disease, largely because its pathogenesis has not been fully understood yet. In addition, there are quite a few other movement disorders that mimic PD clinically including response to levodopa and DA agonists, making an accurate diagnosis of PD difficult sometimes even in the best hands. Finally, the natural course of PD varies substantially, with most patients developing first mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and then dementia as the disease progresses.
1) understand the molecular mechanisms of Parkinson’s disease development
2) understand the molecular mechanisms of Parkinson’s disease progression
3) explore unique biomarkers for diagnosing Parkinson’s disease and monitoring its progression
Initial projects included work on biosensors, the structure of silk, and use of lipid microstructures for controlled release of pharmaceuticals. He was promoted to Professor in 1995, becoming Vice Chair in 2001. Since 1992, Yager has focused on development of microfluidic devices for the manipulation of biological fluids and the measurement of concentrations of analytes of biological relevance. Support to his laboratory and collaborators has been received from NSF, NIH, DARPA, The Whitaker Foundation, the government of Singapore, and private companies including MesoSystems, Senmed Medical Ventures and Hewlett Packard. The support from Senmed resulted in the creation of Micronics, Inc., a Redmond, WA-based company dedicated to microfluidic solutions for problems in the life sciences and medicine.
The primary goal of current work in his laboratory is decentralization of biomedical diagnostic testing in the developed and developing worlds through a program called Distributed Diagnosis and Home Healthcare. The specific aim is the development of microfluidic devices and systems for optical bioassays. Learn more about Paul Yager.
Our long-term goal is to identify means to ameliorate age-related muscle deterioration (sarcopenia) and combat muscle wasting in muscular dystrophy. Sarcopenia is characterized by a decline in mass, strength, and endurance of skeletal muscles, and by fat accumulation between and within myofibers. Subtle muscle injuries that occur during routine muscle activity raise a continuous demand for functional myofiber repair throughout life. However, myogenic stem cell performance declines in old age and this decline can be a contributory factor to sarcopenia. We investigate satellite cells, classically defined tissue specific myogenic stem cells that reside beneath the myofiber basal lamina, as well as non-myogenic progenitors associated with the microvasculature that may contribute to myogenesis by myogenic reprogramming. Our research approach is based on the view that muscle aging is not an isolated event that starts late in life, but rather a continuum of ongoing developmental biology processes that progress with life.
Research in the Totah lab is broadly centered on drug-endogenous substrate interactions. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are mainly known for their ability to metabolize xenobiotics. However, some isozymes are also involved in the metabolism of endogenous substrates such as retinoic acid, steroids and essential fatty acids. We are interested in studying the xenobiotics-endogenous substrate interaction and its potential for inducing tissue-specific toxicity in the kidney, heart, and lung. We are also involved in translational research and collaborate with colleagues in the medical center to bridge together wet-lab science and clinical science. On a daily basis we use molecular biology tools, LC-MS/MS analysis, kinetic analysis and chemical synthesis to understand the biochemical and functional aspects of various P450 enzymes.
A separate area of research focuses on cytochrome P450 BM3, and several mutants, as a model system to study the mechanism of electron transfer from NADPH to the heme and the catalytic mechanism of mammalian P450 enzymes.
Dr. Minoru Taya has been a Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and Adjunct Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, and Electrical Engineering at the University of Washington since 1986. Most recently he becomes Adjunct Professor, School of Oral Health Science , UW. He received a Bachelor of Engineering in 1968 from the University of Tokyo, Japan; Master of Science in Civil Engineering in 1973 and Doctor of Philosophy in Theoretical Applied Mechanics in 1977, both from Northwestern University.
Dr. Taya is currently director of the Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems (CIMS). The intelligent materials that he has been studying are shape memory alloys (SMA), ferromagnetic SMA (FSMA), piezo-composites, electro- and photo-active polymers, and designed actuators based on these materials, including compact ferromagnetic SMA spring actuators, which provides a large stroke and reasonably large force at very high actuation speed. The FSMA actuators are for use in unmanned aircrafts and unmanned ground rover, as well as robotic arms. The electroactive polymers (EAPs) include hydrogels such as Nafion and Flemion, and electrochromic polymers. These EAPs are the key materials for fish fin actuators, smart antenna and smart window technology. In addition, Dr. Taya has been working on design and processing of several energy-harvesting materials and systems; (i) energy-harvesting electrochromic window (NSF-EFRI) and thermoelectric modules with low-cost and light-weight for UAV combustion chambers (AFOSR). Most recently, Dr. Taya has been working on oral implant materials based on toxic-free SMAs.
Dr. Taya served as Associate Editor for Materials Science and Engineering-A, and ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, and chair of the Electronic Materials Committee of ASME Materials Division. Dr. Taya is Fellow of ASME, American Academy of Mechanics, and International Editorial Board member of Advanced Composite Materials.
Dr. Taya has written two monograph books, (i) Metal matrix composites with R.J. Arsenault, Pergamon Press, 1989, and (ii) Electronic Composites, Cambridge University Press, 2005, and currently writing third book, “Bioinspired active and sensing materials and systems” in collaboration with several biologists.
Our research group is interested in elucidating the fundamental mechanisms of biomolecular recognition and applying the unique capabilities of biological molecules to biotechnologies. We would like to bridge the gap between understanding molecular structure-function relationships, and being able to utilize proteins/peptides/DNA for drug therapies, bioanalytics, diagnostics, and biomaterial development.
Skin cancer biology, particularly the molecular mechanism by which the protein kinase ATR mediates an essential cell cycle arrest following DNA damage such as by ultraviolet radiation.
A major portion of the lab is focused on basic, clinical and translational research aspects of Merkel cell carcinoma. We are involved in several clinical studies on this increasingly common and often lethal skin cancer to determine its basic genetic underpinnings as well as its clinical course and optimal management. The Merkel cell carcinoma Multicenter Interest Group (MMIG), an international collaborative group, has been formed to leverage diverse resources, interests and expertise to make a difference in this cancer.
Current projects include:
We design and use microfluidic devices to better mimic the real microenvironment of nerve and cancer cells when we culture them outside of the organism. We are microfluidic! Examples of questions that interest us are how neurons find their targets during development (axon guidance), how they establish their connections (synaptogenesis), and how we sense odors (olfaction), among other projects. We also build microfluidic devices that allow us to personalize chemotherapy and devices to study cancer stem cells. Laboratory website.
We are studying the assembly of the extracellular matrix of skeletal tissues and molecular basis of various inborn and acquired skeletal disorders. The emphasis is on collagen structure and function, and current interests include: (1) mechanisms of collagen cross-linking in bone and cartilage (2) matrix assembly and degradation in cartilages (3) protein consequences of mutations causing chondrodysplasia syndromes (4) metabolic changes in cartilage in osteoarthritis (5) the extracellular matrix of the intervertebral disc and (6) molecular markers of bone and cartilage turnover.
Michael L. Cunningham, MD, PhD, is chief of the Division of Craniofacial Medicine and professor of pediatrics at the University of Washington School of Medicine. He is the medical director of Seattle Children’s Craniofacial Center and holds the Jean Renny Endowed Chair in Craniofacial Medicine. He is also an adjunct professor of Biological Structures, Oral Biology, and Pediatrics Dentistry at the University of Washington Schools of Medicine and Dentistry. Dr. Cunningham balances responsibilities in administration, patient care and research. He does bedside teaching of medical students, dental students and pediatric residents. His clinical interests focus on the diagnosis and long-term interdisciplinary care of children with craniofacial malformations with a particular interest in craniosynostosis. He is co-investigator on several clinical research projects, ranging from the epidemiology of positional plagiocephaly to the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea. Dr. Cunningham’s basic molecular and developmental biology lab has been active since 1993. Using mouse and human models Dr. Cunningham’s research team investigate the molecular causes of craniosynostosis and developmental pathogenesis of midface hypoplasia associated with syndromic craniosynostosis.
We are pursuing several lines of research: the characterization of mutations in type I collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2) that give rise to forms of osteogenesis imperfecta and other disorders, the identification and characterization of mutations in the type III collagen gene (COL3A1) which give rise to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, characterization of mutations in other genes (e.g., COL5A1, COL5A2, PLOD1 and the N-terminal procollagen protease) that result in other forms of connective tissue disorder, identification of proteins in the intracellular and extracellular processing pathways that identify abnormal collagen proteins, and the mechanisms of mRNA processing in collagen genes to predict the outcome of splice site mutations. In addition, we are searching for other genes that may give rise to phenotypes of osteogenesis imperfecta, and determining the rate and genetic basis of parental mosaicism for mutations in these genes.
The majority of mutations in the COL1Al and COLlA2 genes that cause OI result in substitution for glycines within the triple helix. Most of the remainder alter splice sites. Our studies of the mutations suggest that in some instances the order of exon splicing may determine the effects of splice mutations; as a consequence we are studying the order of intron removal in such cell strains. One of the most puzzling aspects of OI has been the failure to identify mutations in all affected individuals. Using long amplification regions, we have noted low level splice defects in some such patients that result in the production of only a small amount of abnormal molecules due to the presence of 5-10% abnormal mRNA species as a consequence of mutations outside the canonical splice site sequences. However, it is clear that some mutations reside outside these two gene.
We have now characterized almost 400 mutations in our families with EDS type IV. These are more heavily weighted to point mutations that result in substitutions for glycine residues within the triple helix of the molecule than mutations that alter splice site integrity. Some mutations prohibit mRNA transport from the nucleus when introns that contain termination codons are included. These findings suggest that there is a link between splicing and nuclear recognition of premature termination codons that may be different from the recognition process that leads to cytoplasmic nonsense-codon mediated mRNA decay. The mechanisms of recognition of these structures is being pursued.
Similar approaches are being taken to disorders which result from several other genes involved in connective tissue biogenesis.
Current research interests are primarily in the area of dental caries management and caries risk assessment, in addition to a long standing interest in the treatment of patients with dental fear and related behavior modification.
Christy McKinney, PhD, MPH is an Associate Professor in Craniofacial Medicine, Pediatrics in the School of Medicine and an Adjunct Associate Professor in Oral Health Sciences, School of Dentistry. She is also an investigator in Seattle Children’s Research Institute’s Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development, and in the Seattle Children’s Hospital Craniofacial Center. She received her PhD (2006) in epidemiology from the University of Washington.
Dr. McKinney’s research interests are focused on the intersection of craniofacial, oral, and nutritional health in young children, both locally and globally. She is the principal investigator of a R01 grant from NIDCR investigating the extent to which children are exposed to the chemical Bisphenol A (BPA) during dental treatment. She also spearheaded the development of the NIFTY™ cup – an infant feeding cup for infants with breastfeeding difficulties (e.g. infants with oral clefts and preterm infants) in low resource settings – with a team of multidisciplinary experts from Seattle Children’s, the University of Washington, PATH, and Laerdal Global Health with clinical testing at Sri Ramachandra University, India.
Dr. McKinney is also the Director of the Summer Institute in Clinical Dental Research Methods at the University of Washington, School of Dentistry and Associate Director of the Institute of Translational Sciences (ITHS) KL2 Career Development program, which trains career development KL2 Scholars through weekly seminars and small group sessions.
Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Release of regulatory proteins into saliva during normal physiological conditions, as well as when glands are compromised and salivary gland secretion is affected. Methodology: Gel electrophoresis, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence and confocal microscopy, in situ hybridization.
Education: The Free University of Brussels (dental degree), the University of Washington (specialty training in periodontics and a doctoral degree in epidemiology), and the University of Michigan (a master of science in biostatistics).
Service: Clinical practice limited to periodontics
Dr. Grembowski teaches social determinants of population health and health program evaluation, and his evaluation interests address prevention and the performance of health care systems. His studies have examined efforts to improve quality by increasing access to care in integrated delivery systems; managed care and physician referrals; managed care and patient-physician relationships; cost-effectiveness of preventive services for older adults; fluoridation effects on oral health and dental demand; financial incentives and dentist adoption of preventive technologies; effects of dental insurance on dental demand, and the link between mother and child access to dental care. His research interests include the design and performance of health care systems; prevention; technology diffusion. His methodology interests are program evaluation and survey research.
Dr. Jeffrey E. Rubenstein was awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree in Biological Sciences (1972) from Rutgers College, a D.M.D. from Tufts University School of Dental Medicine (1975), a General Practice Residency at the Lancaster Cleft Palate Institute and H.K. Cooper Center for Craniofacial Anomalies (1976) and a Certificate in Prosthodontics with emphasis on Maxillofacial Prosthodontics from M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute and a post doctoral M.S. from the University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston, Texas (1980)
Dr. Rubenstein was Professor and Director of the Maxillofacial Prosthetic Service. His research focus was that of developing cutting edge technological approaches toward the oro-facial rehabilitation of the patient with anatomical compromise in the region of the head and neck. Dr. Rubenstein along with the surgical/reconstructive team at the University of Washington Medical Center have collaborated to facilitate improved function and restoration of such patients with significant and severe compromise and insult to their oro-facial anatomy stemming from management of oro-facial cancer treatment, trauma or congenital disorders. He also has attempted to develop research projects for graduate students and undergraduate dental students stemming from his seminal research on interface fit of implant components and prostheses. Further, clinical trials on cutting edge techniques such as Procera® All Ceramic Restorations and computer generated implant abutments and frameworks has also been a focus of research activity. He has authored a number of publications in the periodic and text literature. As well he has actively contributed to University of Washington Continuing Education Programs, and lectured locally, nationally and internationally.
Dr. Rubenstein was a Fellow in the Washington State Society of Prosthodontists and served as it’s President in 2002. He was also a member of the Academy of Osseointegration. He was a Diplomate of the American Board of Prosthodontics, a Fellow in the American Academy of Maxillofacial Prosthetics as well as this organization’s President in 2007 and a Fellow in the American College of Prosthodontists. He was a Fellow in the Academy of Prosthodontics. He served on editorial review boards of the The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants and the International Journal of Prosthodontics. Dr. Rubenstein was listed in the inaugural edition of “Best Dentists in the United States, and in Seattle Metropolitan Magazine’s Listing of Seattle’s Top Dentists from 2010 to date.
Regulation of inflammation in human adult periodontitis and other chronic inflammatory diseases, effects of chronic neutropenia on oral health, and biology and imaging of the dental implant.
Dr. McLean’s research career began at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, WA (2000-2007). He then established a research program at the non-profit J. Craig Venter Institute in San Diego, CA in 2007. He moved to the University of Washington School of Dentistry in 2014 and is a tenured Associate Professor in the Department of Periodontics at the School of Dentistry with a joint appointment in Oral Health Sciences as well as an adjunct position in the Department of Microbiology at UW. For the past 21 years, his research has been primarily devoted to developing innovative methodologies, tools and new genomic based approaches to study microbial interactions within biofilm communities. Dr. McLean received his MSc at the University of Guelph in Canada and PhD at the University of Southern California. Currently, he is funded as a PI on multiple NIH awards to characterize the microbial processes that lead to oral diseases and maintain the health of the human oral microbiome.
The goal of the research in the McLean lab has been to gain an understanding for the molecular basis of bacteria-bacteria as well as bacteria-host interactions and further develop innovative methodologies, tools and integrated “omic” based approaches combined with wet-lab cultivation work on oral communities to ultimately translate this fundamental knowledge to the overall benefit of human health. His lab has extensive experience in next generation sequencing and combining omic approaches such as temporal resolved metatranscriptomic analysis (gene expression of all the microbes at once) in parallel with measuring global metabolites to reveal the homeostatic mechanisms of oral microbial communities. The lab tracks oral microbiome community assembly and maturation both in vitro and in vivo, capturing the temporal taxonomic and expression dynamics of key disease related species in direct association with the clinical host responses. Recent work of the team on the variation in human inflammatory responses to oral plaque bacteria leading to gum disease (gingivitis and chronic periodontitis) has links to overall systemic health.
Doug is a professor of Orthodontics, Oral Health Sciences, Orthodontics, and Pediatric Dentistry. In addition to receiving numerous NIH research grants, he was also the recipient of a Research Career Development Award from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR). Doug is a Diplomate of the American Board of Orthodontics and a member of the Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontists. Doug is the Director of the UW’s Regional Clinical Dental Research Center and is currently the Director of the T90/R90 NIDCR-supported institutional training grant at the UW School of Dentistry. Doug has directed courses in the predoctoral dental and graduate dental specialty programs, supervised patient care in the graduate orthodontics clinic, and been Chair of numerous thesis committees.
DDS in 1983, Nanjing Medical University, China, MS in Oral Physiology in 1986, The 4th Military Medical University, China, PhD in Oral Physiology in 1991, Osaka University, Japan.
Biology of craniofacial skeletons and musculatures (growth, remodeling, adaptation and biomechanics). Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) function and and functional disorders (TMD). Mechanism of orthodontic tooth movements and material properties of periodontal ligaments.
(*: Correspondence author, in chronological order)
1. Liu Z.J.* and Wang H.Y.: A comparative study of sound patterns and arthrograms in the cases with TMJ disorders. J. Practical Stomatology, 2:36-40, 1986
2. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y., Pu W.Y. and Yan C.Y.: EMG study on superior and inferior bellies of lateral pterygoid muscle in the normal adults and its clinical value. J. Practical Stomatology, 2:104-108, 1986
3. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y. and Pu W.Y.: A comparative study on EMG of lateral pterygoid muscle and TMJ arthrography in the TMJ sounds patients. J. Practical Stomatology, 2:227-231, 1986
4. Wang H.Y., Shi J.Z., Yan C.Y. and Liu Z.J.: Properties of bite force in the normal adults. J. Practical Stomatology, 3:67-71, 1987
5. Liu Z.J.* and Wang H.Y.: TMJ disc displacement relative to condylar position and abnormality of mandibular movements. J. Comprehensive Stomatology, 3:136-139, 1987
6. Liu Z.J.* and Wang H.Y.: A clinical and radiological study in cases with TMJDS sounds. West China J. Stomatology, 5:239-243, 1987
7. Wang H.Y.*, Liu Z.J., Wang M.Q., Jiao G.L., Zhen Y.G. and Yang Z.G.: Design and application of 8-channel electromyograph used in oro-maxillofacial region. J. Practical Stomatology, 4:114-118, 1988.
8. Liu Z.J.* and Wang H.Y.: Comprehensive study on occlusion, EMG and radiography in cases with TMJ clickings. J. Chinese Stomatology, 23:276-278, 1988
9. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y. and Pu W.Y.: Clinical and radiological observation on treatment of TMJ internal derangement by repositioning splint: A follow-up study by arthrography. J. Chinese Stomatology, 24:91-94, 1989
10. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y. and Pu W.Y.: A comparative electromyographic study of the lateral pterygoid muscle and arthrography in patients with temporomandibular joint disturbance syndrome sounds. J. Prosthet Dent., 62:229-233, 1989
11. Gu G.M., Niu X.F., Ye X.Y., Li X.H. and Liu Z.J.*: A comparative study on mandibular position and electromyography of masticatory muscles in edentulous cases before and after complete denture prosthesis. J. Practical Stomatology, 6:111-114, 1990
12. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y., Liu D.D. and Li G.P.: A computer-aid method of calculating TMJ space and its clinical application. J. Stomatology, 10:131-133, 1990
13. Liu Z.J.*: Coordination and modification of cortically induced rhythmic jaw and tongue movements in the rabbit. J. Osaka University Dental Society, 36:39-52, 1991
14. Xu R.S., Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y. and Yan C.Y.: Characteristics of condylar position and intercuspal position in the cases with Angle’s II and III malocclusion. West China J. Stomatology, 11:252-254, 1993
15. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y., Masuda Y. and Morimoto T.: Cinefluororadiographic observation of cortically induced rhythmic movements of mandible, tongue and hyoid. West China J. Stomatology, 11:23-28, 1993
16. Liu Z.J., Masuda Y., Inoue T.*, Fuchihata M., Sumida A., Takata K. and Morimoto T.*: Coordination of cortically induced rhythmic jaw and tongue movements in the rabbit. J. Neurophysiol., 69:569-584, 1993
17. Liu Z.J.*, Wang H.Y., Masuda Y. and Morimoto T.: A comparative study between cortically induced fictive mastication and actual mastication in acute and chronic rabbits. J. Chinese Stomatology, 29:305-308, 1994.
18. Xu R.S.*, Liu Z.J., Wang H.Y., Lin Z. and He M.Y.: A study of the condyle position in Angle’s I, II, III malocclusion. China J. Orthodontics, 2:61-63, 1995
19. Tang W.Z., Tang L., Jin J. and Liu Z.J.*: Physiological properties of oral sensation. J. Practical Stomatology, 12:28-30, 1996
20. Yasui S., Nokubi T.*, Nakamura K., Nagashima T., Yoshida M., Yoyoshima M., Liu Z.J., Yao Y.L. and Wang H.Y.: Influences of the position of occlusal support on the perception of mandibular position. J. Japan Prosthodontic Society, 40:117-121, 1996
21. Liu Z.J.*, Kubata S., Yamagata Y., Suenaga S., Noikura T. and Ito G.: Quantitative and multidimensional evaluation of symptoms and correlative factors for temporomandibular disorders in clinical and subclinical subjects. J. Japan Orthodontic Society, 55:445-460, 1996
22. Liu Z.J.*, Ikeda K., Harada Y., Kasahara Y. and Ito G.: Functional properties of jaw and tongue muscles in rats fed a liquid diet after being weaned. J. Dent. Res., 77: 366-376, 1998
23. Liu Z.J.*, Yamagata Y., Kasahara Y. and Ito G.: Electromyographic examination of jaw muscles in relation to symptoms and occlusion of patients with temporomandibular joint disorders. J.Oral Rehabil., 26: 33-47,1999.
24. Ikeda K.*, Liu Z.J. and Ito G.: Development of alternative activity of masseter and anterior digastrics in rats fed by kneaded diet. Dentistry in Japan, 35: 81-83, 1999
25. Liu Z.J.* and Herring S.W.: Bone surface strains and internal bony pressures at the jaw joint during masticatory muscle contraction. Arch. Oral Biol., 45:95-112, 2000
26. Liu Z.J.*, Yamagata Y., Kuroe K., Suenaga S., Noikura K. and Ito G.: Morphological and positional assessments of TMJ components and lateral pterygoid muscle in relation to symptoms and occlusion of patients with temporomandibular disorders. J. Oral Rehabil., 27:860-874, 2000
27. Liu Z.J.* and Herring S.W.: Masticatory strains on osseous and ligamentous components of the jaw joint in miniature pigs. J. Orofac. Pain, 14:265-278, 2000
28. Herring S.W*. and Liu Z.J.: Loading of the TMJ: Anatomical and in vivo evidence from the bones Cells Tissues Organs, 169: 193-200, 2001
29. Herring S.W.*, Rafferty K.L., Liu Z.J. and Marshall C.D.: Jaw muscles and the skull in mammals: The biomechanics of mastication. J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 131:207-219, 2001
30. Sun Z.*, Liu Z.J. and Herring S.W.: Movement of TMJ tissue during mastication and passive manipulation: study in miniature pigs. Arch. Oral Biol., 47:293-305, 2002
31. Herring S.W.*, Decker J.D., Liu Z.J. and Ma T.: Temporomandibular joint in miniature pigs: Anatomy, cell replication, and relation to loading. Anat. Rec. 266:152-166, 2002
32. Connolly J.P.*, Liu Z.J, Wang L.L., Whelan M.F., Huang G.J., Williams J.K. and King G.J. A custom mandibular distraction device for the rat. J. Craniofac. Surg. 13:445-449, 2002
33. Gu G.M.*, Yoshida R., Liu Z.J., Hirose T. and Ito G.: Muscle fiber composition and electromyographic features of cervical muscles following prolonged head extension in growing rats. Eur. J. Orthod. 25:20-33, 2003
34. Liu Z.J.*, King G.J., Herring S.W. and Whelan M.F.: Alterations of morphology andmicrodensity in the Condyle following mandibular osteodistraction in the rat. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 61:918-927, 2003
35. King G.J.*, Liu Z.J., Wang L.L., Chiu I.Y. Whelan M.F.and Huang G.J.: Effect of distraction rate and consolidation period on bone density in mandibular osteodistraction rats. Arch. Oral Biol. 48:299-308, 2003
36. Baskin C.R.*, Liu Z.J., King G.J. and Maggio-Price L.: Vascular leak syndrome in Sprague-Dawley rats in mandibular distraction osteogenesis study. Comp. Med. 53:207-212, 2003.
37. Liu Z. J.*, Green J.R., Moore C.A. and Herring S.W.: Time series analysis of jaw muscle contraction and tissue deformation during mastication in miniature pigs. J. Oral Rehabil. 31:7-17, 2004
38. Liu Z.J.*, Anderson M.W., Gu G.M. and King G.J.: Apoptosis in the regenerate produced by mandibular osteodistraction in skeleton mature rats. J. Orthod. Craniofac. Res. 8:41-51, 2005.
39. Liu Z.J.*, King, G.J. Gu G.M., Shin J.Y and D.R. Stewart.: Does human relaxin accelerate orthodontic tooth movement in rats? Ann NY Acad Sci 1041:388-394, 2005.
40. Shin J.Y., Liu Z.J.* and King G.J,: Trabecular organization of mandibular osteodistraction in growing and maturing rats. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 63:77-86, 2005.
41. Williams B.E., King G. J., Liu Z.J.* and Rafferty K.L.: Dynamic histomorphometric analysis of regenerate osteogenesis following mandibular distraction in the rat. Arch. Oral Biol. 50:497-508, 2005.
42. Liu Z.J.*, King G.J and Herring S.W.: Condylar mineralization following mandibular distraction osteogenesis in rapidly and slowly growing rats. J. Dent. Res. 85: 653-657, 2006.
43. Okafuji N., Liu Z.J.* and King G.J.: Assessment of cell proliferation during mandibular osteodistraction in the mature rat. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop. 130:612-621, 2006.
44. Liu Z.J.*, Kayalioglu M., Shcherbatyy V. and Seifi A.: Tongue deformation, jaw movement and muscle activity during mastication in pigs. Arch. Oral Biol. 52:309-312, 2007.
45. Madan M.S., Liu Z.J.*, Gu G.M. and King G.J.: Effects of human relaxin on orthodontic tooth movement and periodontal ligaments in rats. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop. 131: 8e1-10, 2007.
46. Kayalioglu M., Shcherbatyy V. Seifi A. and Liu Z.J.*: Roles of tongue intrinsic and extrinsic muscles in feeding: Electromyographic study in pigs. Arch. Oral Biol. 52:786-796, 2007.
47. Ross C.F.*, Dharia R., Herring S.W., Hylander W.L., Liu Z.J., Rafferty K.L., Ravosa M.J. and Willaims S.H.: Modulation of mandibular corpus bone strain in mammals during mastication. J. Exp. Biol. 210:1046-63, 2007.
48. Shcherbatyy V. and Liu Z.J.*: Internal kinematics of the tongue during feeding in pigs. Anat. Rec. 290:128 1299, 2007.
49. Liu Z.J.*, Shcherbatyy V. and Perkins J.A.: Functional loads of the tongue and consequence of the volume reduction. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 66(7):1351-1361, 2008,
50. Liu Z.J.*, Yamamura B., Shcherbatyy V. and Green J.R.: Regional volumetric changes of the tongue during mastication in pigs. J. Oral Rehabil. 35(8):604-612, 2008.
51. Shcherbatyy V., Perkins J.A. and Liu Z.J.*: Internal Kinematics of the Tongue following Volume Reduction. Anat. Rec. 291(7):886-893, 2008.
52. Liu Z.J.*, Shcherbatyy V, Gu G.M. and Perkins J.A.: Effects of tongue body volume reduction on craniofacial growth: A longitudinal study on orofacial skeletons and dental arches. Arch. Oral Biol. 53:991-1001, 2008.
53. Perkins J.A.*, Shcherbatyy V. and Liu Z.J.: Morphologic and histologic outcomes of tongue reduction surgery in an animal model. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. 139:291-297, 2008.
54. Liu Z.J.*, Shcherbatyy V., Kayalioglu M. and Seifi A.: Internal kinematics of the tongue in relation to muscle activity and jaw movement during feeding. J. Oral. Rehabil. 36:660-674, 2009.
55. Yousefzadeh F., Shcherbatyy V., King G.J., Huang G.J. and Liu Z.J*: A cephalometric and electromyographic study in patients of East-African ethnicity with and without anterior open bite. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop. 137:236-246, 2010.
56. Ye W.M, Abu A.F and Liu Z.J*: Assessment of cell proliferation and muscular structure following surgical tongue volume reduction in pigs. Cell Proliferation, 43(6): 562-572, 2010.
57. Herring S.W., Rafferty K.L., Liu Z.J. and Lemme M.: Mastication and the postorbital ligament: Dynamic strain in soft tissues. Integrative & Comparative Biology, 51:297-306, 2011.
58. Rafferty K.L., Liu Z.J., Ye, M., Alfonso L.N., Nguyen T.T., Salamati A., Herrin S.W*: Botulinum toxin in masticatory muscles: Short- and long-term effects on muscle, bone, and craniofacial function in adult rabbits. Bone, 50(3):551-562, 2012.
59. Navarrete A.L., Rafferty KL, Liu Z.J., Ye W, Herring S.W.: Botulinum neurotoxin type A in the masseter muscle: Effects on incisor eruption in rabbits. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop. 143:499-506, 2013.
60. Ye W.M, Duan Y.Z. and Liu Z.J*: Alteration of functional loads after tongue volume reduction. J. Craniofac. Orthod Res, 16:234-245 2013.
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2. Morimoto T.*, Nakamura O., Ogata K., Liu Z.J., Matsuo R., Inoue T., Masuda Y., Saito O., Mizuno J. and Kato K.: Autoregulation of masticatory force in the anesthetized rabbit. In: Brain and Oral Function – Oral Motor Function and Dysfunction, T. Morimoto, T. Matsuya and K. Takata Eds., The Netherlands: Elsevier Science B.V., pp.115-124, 1995
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4. Herring S.W.*, Sun Z., Egbert M.A., Rafferty K.L. and Liu Z.J.: Is distraction the only motion permitted at the osteotomy site? Fixation and stability of the pig mandible. In: Biological Mechanisms of Tooth Movement & Craniofacial Adaptation, ed. Z. Davidovotch and J. Mah, Harvard Soc. Adv. Orthodontics, pp. 31-38, 2004.
5. Liu Z.J.*, King G.J. and Herring S.W.: Why do we fail to achieve predicted lengthening in mandibular osteodistraction? Observations on condylar morphology and microdensity in growing and maturing rats. In: Biological Mechanisms of Tooth Movement & Craniofacial Adaptation, ed. Z. Davidovitch and J. Mah, Harvard Soc. Adv. Orthodontics, pp. 39-51, 2004.
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7. Pavlin D., Hulme R.D., King G.J., Liu Z.J., Gluhak-Heinrich J.: Regulation of osteopontin in para-surgical bone cell following mandibular distraction osteogenesis in rats. In: Biological Mechanisms of Tooth Eruption, Resorption, and Movement, ed. Z. Davidovitch and J. Mah, Harvard Soc. Adv. Orthodontics, pp. 429-438, 2006.
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