Carol Ware , PhD

Research Professor, Comparative Medicine
Adjunct Professor, Oral Health Sciences

Office: N-501A, SLU
Box: 358056


Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are pluripotent cells capable of self-renewing indefinitely in vitro and differentiating into a broad array of cells types. Human ESC (hESC) provide a model system to understand “stemness”. My research is involved with improving both the self-renewal and differentiation capacity of hESC. This involves manipulation of the pluripotent state in an effort to determine the most amenable pluripotent hESC stage for long-term maintenance with the greatest differentiation potential. The ultimate goal is to stably culture a subtly earlier stage in vitro, reflective of the preimplantation embryo inner cell mass. One means of achieving this is through alteration of the epigenetic state using histone deacetylase inhibitors. Another means is through the use of selective inhibitors that affect specific signaling pathways. We are starting new hESC lines using refined culture conditions and applying these conditions to the derivation of new induced pluripotent stem cell lines.


  1. Hall LL, Byron M, Butler J, Becker KA, Nelson A, Amit M, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Stein J, Stien G, Ware C and Lawrence JB (2008) X-inactivation reveals epigenetic anomalies in most hESC but identifies sublines that initiate as expected. JCell. Physiol 216:445-452.
  2. Bar M, Wyman SK, Fritz BR, Qi J, Garg KS, Parkin RK, Kroh EM, Bendoraite A, Mitchell PS, Nelson AM, Ruzzo WL, Ware C, Radich JP, Gentleman R, Ruohola-Baker H and Tewari M (2008) MicroRNA discovery and profiling in human embryonic sem cells by deep sequencing of small RNA libraries. Stem Cells 26:2496-2505.
  3. Chang KH, Nelson AM, Fields PA, Hesson JL, Ulyanova T, Cao H, Nakamoto B, Ware CB and Papayannopoulou T. (2008) Diverse hematopoietic potentials of five human embryonic stem cell lines. Exp Cell Res 314:2930-40.
  4. Ware CB Wang L, Mecham BH, Forough R, Nelson AM, Dauphin DS, Buckingham B, Bar M, Lim R, Askari B, Gartler SM, Shen L, Issa J-P, Tewari M, Lamba DA, Pavlidis P, Duan Z and Blau CA Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Elicits an Evolutionarily Conserved Self-Renewal Program in Embryonic Stem Cells (in press).
  5. Baran SW and Ware CB (2007) Cryopreservation of rhesus macaque embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 16:339-344.
  6. Chang KH, Nelson AM, Cao H, Wang L, Nakamoto B Ware CB and Papayannopoulou T. (2006) Definitive-like erythroid cells derived from human embryonic stem cells co-express high levels of embryonic and fetal globins with little or no adult globin. Blood 108:1515-1523.
  7. Lamba DA, Karl MO, Ware CB and Reh TA (2006) Efficient generation of retinal progenitor cells from human embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:12769-12774.
  8. Ware CB, Nelson AM and Blau CA (2006) A comparison of NIH-Approved Human ES cell Lines. Stem Cells 24:2677-2684.
  9. Ware CB, Nelson AM and Blau CA (2005) Controlled-rate freezing of human ES cells. BioTechniques 38:879-883.
  10. Ware CB, Kariagina A, Zonis S, Alon D and Chesnokova V (2005) Leukemia inhibitory factor signaling is implicated in embryonic development of the HPA axis. FEBS Lett. 579:4465-4469.
  11. Ware CB, Siverts L-AN, Nelson AM, Morton JF and Ladiges WC (2004) Utility of a C57BL/6 ES line versus 129 ES lines for targeted mutations in mice. Transgenic Res. 12, 743-746.
  12. Ware CB, Nelson AM and Liggitt D (2003) Late Gestation Modulation of Fetal Glucocorticoid Effects Requires the Receptor for Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An Observational Study. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 1, 43.